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Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses

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ABSTRACT

Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant’s history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S.canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics.

No MeSH data available.


Chemical structures of biologically active S. canadensis alkaloids.
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ijms-17-01414-f001: Chemical structures of biologically active S. canadensis alkaloids.

Mentions: S. canadensis contains eight isoquinoline alkaloids at biologically relevant concentrations including six quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs) sanguinarine, chelerythrine, sanguilutine, chelilutine, sanguirubine, chelirubine and two protopin alkaloids protopine and allocryptopine (Figure 1) [7]. Most reports regarding these alkaloids discuss their anticancer effects, especially for sanguinarine and chelerythrine [8], although antimicrobial [9], cardiovascular [10], neuroreceptor [11] and anti-inflammatory activities [12] of these alkaloids have also been identified.


Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses
Chemical structures of biologically active S. canadensis alkaloids.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037693&req=5

ijms-17-01414-f001: Chemical structures of biologically active S. canadensis alkaloids.
Mentions: S. canadensis contains eight isoquinoline alkaloids at biologically relevant concentrations including six quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs) sanguinarine, chelerythrine, sanguilutine, chelilutine, sanguirubine, chelirubine and two protopin alkaloids protopine and allocryptopine (Figure 1) [7]. Most reports regarding these alkaloids discuss their anticancer effects, especially for sanguinarine and chelerythrine [8], although antimicrobial [9], cardiovascular [10], neuroreceptor [11] and anti-inflammatory activities [12] of these alkaloids have also been identified.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant’s history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S.canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics.

No MeSH data available.