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The Profiling and Identification of the Absorbed Constituents and Metabolites of Guizhi Decoction in Rat Plasma and Urine by Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography Combined with Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

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ABSTRACT

Guizhi decoction (GZD), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription consisting of Ramulus Cinnamomi, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Fructus Jujubae and Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, is usually used for the treatment of common colds, influenza, and other pyretic conditions in the clinic. However, the absorbed ingredients and metabolic compounds of GZD have not been reported. In this paper, a method incorporating rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) was used to identify ingredients after oral administration of GZD. Identification of the primary components in GZD, drug-containing serum and urine samples was carried out in order to investigate the assimilation and metabolites of the decoction in vivo. By comparing the total ion chromatograms (TICs) of GZD, a total of 71 constituents were detected or characterized. By comparing TICs of blank and dosed rat plasma, a total of 15 constituents were detected and identified as prototypes according to their retention time (tR) and MS, MS/MS data. Based on this, neutral loss scans of 80 and 176 Da in samples of rat plasma and urine helped us to identify most of the metabolites. Results showed that the predominant metabolic pathways of (epi) catechin and gallic acid were sulfation, methylation, glucuronidation and dehydroxylation; the major metabolic pathways of flavone were hydrolysis, sulfation and glucuronidation. Furthermore, degradation, oxidation and ring fission were found to often occur in the metabolism process of GZD in vivo.

No MeSH data available.


The potential metabolic profile of flavone-related metabolites. (a) Naringenin-O-glucoside-related metabolites; (b) Liquiritigenin-related metabolites; (c) Isoliquiritigenin-related metabolites; and (d) Formononetin-related metabolite.
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ijms-17-01409-f006: The potential metabolic profile of flavone-related metabolites. (a) Naringenin-O-glucoside-related metabolites; (b) Liquiritigenin-related metabolites; (c) Isoliquiritigenin-related metabolites; and (d) Formononetin-related metabolite.

Mentions: The metabolites of flavone-related are the major metabolites from Radix Glycyrrhizae. There are different kinds of complicated flavone components such as naringenin-O-glucoside, liquiritigenin and fomononetin existing in GZD. Sixteen compounds altogether were assigned as flavone-related metabolites. Among them, six originated from naringenin-O-glucoside-related metabolites, six from liquiritigenin-related metabolites, three from isoliquiritigenin-related metabolites and one from fomononetin-related metabolites. The potential metabolism profile of the main flavone-related metabolites was described as shown in Figure 6, and information about all the flavone-related metabolites is listed in Table 2.


The Profiling and Identification of the Absorbed Constituents and Metabolites of Guizhi Decoction in Rat Plasma and Urine by Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography Combined with Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
The potential metabolic profile of flavone-related metabolites. (a) Naringenin-O-glucoside-related metabolites; (b) Liquiritigenin-related metabolites; (c) Isoliquiritigenin-related metabolites; and (d) Formononetin-related metabolite.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037689&req=5

ijms-17-01409-f006: The potential metabolic profile of flavone-related metabolites. (a) Naringenin-O-glucoside-related metabolites; (b) Liquiritigenin-related metabolites; (c) Isoliquiritigenin-related metabolites; and (d) Formononetin-related metabolite.
Mentions: The metabolites of flavone-related are the major metabolites from Radix Glycyrrhizae. There are different kinds of complicated flavone components such as naringenin-O-glucoside, liquiritigenin and fomononetin existing in GZD. Sixteen compounds altogether were assigned as flavone-related metabolites. Among them, six originated from naringenin-O-glucoside-related metabolites, six from liquiritigenin-related metabolites, three from isoliquiritigenin-related metabolites and one from fomononetin-related metabolites. The potential metabolism profile of the main flavone-related metabolites was described as shown in Figure 6, and information about all the flavone-related metabolites is listed in Table 2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Guizhi decoction (GZD), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription consisting of Ramulus Cinnamomi, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Fructus Jujubae and Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, is usually used for the treatment of common colds, influenza, and other pyretic conditions in the clinic. However, the absorbed ingredients and metabolic compounds of GZD have not been reported. In this paper, a method incorporating rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) was used to identify ingredients after oral administration of GZD. Identification of the primary components in GZD, drug-containing serum and urine samples was carried out in order to investigate the assimilation and metabolites of the decoction in vivo. By comparing the total ion chromatograms (TICs) of GZD, a total of 71 constituents were detected or characterized. By comparing TICs of blank and dosed rat plasma, a total of 15 constituents were detected and identified as prototypes according to their retention time (tR) and MS, MS/MS data. Based on this, neutral loss scans of 80 and 176 Da in samples of rat plasma and urine helped us to identify most of the metabolites. Results showed that the predominant metabolic pathways of (epi) catechin and gallic acid were sulfation, methylation, glucuronidation and dehydroxylation; the major metabolic pathways of flavone were hydrolysis, sulfation and glucuronidation. Furthermore, degradation, oxidation and ring fission were found to often occur in the metabolism process of GZD in vivo.

No MeSH data available.