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The Profiling and Identification of the Absorbed Constituents and Metabolites of Guizhi Decoction in Rat Plasma and Urine by Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography Combined with Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

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ABSTRACT

Guizhi decoction (GZD), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription consisting of Ramulus Cinnamomi, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Fructus Jujubae and Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, is usually used for the treatment of common colds, influenza, and other pyretic conditions in the clinic. However, the absorbed ingredients and metabolic compounds of GZD have not been reported. In this paper, a method incorporating rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) was used to identify ingredients after oral administration of GZD. Identification of the primary components in GZD, drug-containing serum and urine samples was carried out in order to investigate the assimilation and metabolites of the decoction in vivo. By comparing the total ion chromatograms (TICs) of GZD, a total of 71 constituents were detected or characterized. By comparing TICs of blank and dosed rat plasma, a total of 15 constituents were detected and identified as prototypes according to their retention time (tR) and MS, MS/MS data. Based on this, neutral loss scans of 80 and 176 Da in samples of rat plasma and urine helped us to identify most of the metabolites. Results showed that the predominant metabolic pathways of (epi) catechin and gallic acid were sulfation, methylation, glucuronidation and dehydroxylation; the major metabolic pathways of flavone were hydrolysis, sulfation and glucuronidation. Furthermore, degradation, oxidation and ring fission were found to often occur in the metabolism process of GZD in vivo.

No MeSH data available.


Base peak chromatograms (BPCs) with neutral loss scanning of 176 and 80 Da in negative mode to find constituents existing in (a) Rat plasma samples; (b) Rat urine samples.
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ijms-17-01409-f003: Base peak chromatograms (BPCs) with neutral loss scanning of 176 and 80 Da in negative mode to find constituents existing in (a) Rat plasma samples; (b) Rat urine samples.

Mentions: As we know, after intragastric administration of the drug, the compounds originating from the drug were metabolized by intestinal bacteria in the intestine [16]. Then, they were absorbed into plasma so they can be metabolized further by all kinds of drug metabolism enzymes in liver. In principle, there are two metabolic reactions which are called phase I and phase II reactions. Through the phase I reactions including oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis [17], the prototype components could be converted into aglycone, oxidized aglycone or reduced aglycone. After that, phase II reactions can convert the products of phase I into metabolites. In addition, the phase II reactions were focused on conjugating with glucuronide and sulfate [18,19,20,21]. In order to screen metabolites which were mainly conjugated with glucuronidation and sulfation, we use base peak chromatograms (BPCs) with neutral loss scans of 176 and 80 Da to find compounds existing in the rat plasma (Figure 3a) and urine samples (Figure 3b) in negative mode. A total of 47 peaks were identified which highly promoted the metabolite profiling of GZD. One metabolite was identified in positive mode. Comparing the TICs and, referring to references [22,23], another four metabolites were detected. The results showed that 52 components were tentatively detected as metabolites of GZD. All of the available information about the metabolites is shown in Table 2 and Table 3.


The Profiling and Identification of the Absorbed Constituents and Metabolites of Guizhi Decoction in Rat Plasma and Urine by Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography Combined with Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
Base peak chromatograms (BPCs) with neutral loss scanning of 176 and 80 Da in negative mode to find constituents existing in (a) Rat plasma samples; (b) Rat urine samples.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037689&req=5

ijms-17-01409-f003: Base peak chromatograms (BPCs) with neutral loss scanning of 176 and 80 Da in negative mode to find constituents existing in (a) Rat plasma samples; (b) Rat urine samples.
Mentions: As we know, after intragastric administration of the drug, the compounds originating from the drug were metabolized by intestinal bacteria in the intestine [16]. Then, they were absorbed into plasma so they can be metabolized further by all kinds of drug metabolism enzymes in liver. In principle, there are two metabolic reactions which are called phase I and phase II reactions. Through the phase I reactions including oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis [17], the prototype components could be converted into aglycone, oxidized aglycone or reduced aglycone. After that, phase II reactions can convert the products of phase I into metabolites. In addition, the phase II reactions were focused on conjugating with glucuronide and sulfate [18,19,20,21]. In order to screen metabolites which were mainly conjugated with glucuronidation and sulfation, we use base peak chromatograms (BPCs) with neutral loss scans of 176 and 80 Da to find compounds existing in the rat plasma (Figure 3a) and urine samples (Figure 3b) in negative mode. A total of 47 peaks were identified which highly promoted the metabolite profiling of GZD. One metabolite was identified in positive mode. Comparing the TICs and, referring to references [22,23], another four metabolites were detected. The results showed that 52 components were tentatively detected as metabolites of GZD. All of the available information about the metabolites is shown in Table 2 and Table 3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Guizhi decoction (GZD), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription consisting of Ramulus Cinnamomi, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Fructus Jujubae and Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, is usually used for the treatment of common colds, influenza, and other pyretic conditions in the clinic. However, the absorbed ingredients and metabolic compounds of GZD have not been reported. In this paper, a method incorporating rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) was used to identify ingredients after oral administration of GZD. Identification of the primary components in GZD, drug-containing serum and urine samples was carried out in order to investigate the assimilation and metabolites of the decoction in vivo. By comparing the total ion chromatograms (TICs) of GZD, a total of 71 constituents were detected or characterized. By comparing TICs of blank and dosed rat plasma, a total of 15 constituents were detected and identified as prototypes according to their retention time (tR) and MS, MS/MS data. Based on this, neutral loss scans of 80 and 176 Da in samples of rat plasma and urine helped us to identify most of the metabolites. Results showed that the predominant metabolic pathways of (epi) catechin and gallic acid were sulfation, methylation, glucuronidation and dehydroxylation; the major metabolic pathways of flavone were hydrolysis, sulfation and glucuronidation. Furthermore, degradation, oxidation and ring fission were found to often occur in the metabolism process of GZD in vivo.

No MeSH data available.