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In Vitro Co-Culture Models of Breast Cancer Metastatic Progression towards Bone

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ABSTRACT

Advanced breast cancer frequently metastasizes to bone through a multistep process involving the detachment of cells from the primary tumor, their intravasation into the bloodstream, adhesion to the endothelium and extravasation into the bone, culminating with the establishment of a vicious cycle causing extensive bone lysis. In recent years, the crosstalk between tumor cells and secondary organs microenvironment is gaining much attention, being indicated as a crucial aspect in all metastatic steps. To investigate the complex interrelation between the tumor and the microenvironment, both in vitro and in vivo models have been exploited. In vitro models have some advantages over in vivo, mainly the possibility to thoroughly dissect in controlled conditions and with only human cells the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the metastatic progression. In this article we will review the main results deriving from in vitro co-culture models, describing mechanisms activated in the crosstalk between breast cancer and bone cells which drive the different metastatic steps.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic of the initial phases of metastatic dissemination. A subset of cells of the primary tumor acquires an aggressive phenotype and can detach from the tumor, entering the vasculature. Circulating tumor cells are subjected to chemotactic attraction towards favorable microenvironments called pre-metastatic niches, where they can extravasate and start to form a secondary tumor. Modified with permission from [3] Chaffer, C.L.; et al. A perspective on cancer cell metastasis. Science2011.
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ijms-17-01405-f002: Schematic of the initial phases of metastatic dissemination. A subset of cells of the primary tumor acquires an aggressive phenotype and can detach from the tumor, entering the vasculature. Circulating tumor cells are subjected to chemotactic attraction towards favorable microenvironments called pre-metastatic niches, where they can extravasate and start to form a secondary tumor. Modified with permission from [3] Chaffer, C.L.; et al. A perspective on cancer cell metastasis. Science2011.

Mentions: In vitro models involving the co-culture between breast cancer cells (BCCs) and bone cells have been exploited to study the mechanisms driving the metastatic process since the very initial events. As stated in the introduction, the metastatic spreading of a tumor begins with the acquisition of an aggressive phenotype by a subset of cells which allows them to detach from the primary tumor and migrate towards a secondary organ (Figure 2) [3].


In Vitro Co-Culture Models of Breast Cancer Metastatic Progression towards Bone
Schematic of the initial phases of metastatic dissemination. A subset of cells of the primary tumor acquires an aggressive phenotype and can detach from the tumor, entering the vasculature. Circulating tumor cells are subjected to chemotactic attraction towards favorable microenvironments called pre-metastatic niches, where they can extravasate and start to form a secondary tumor. Modified with permission from [3] Chaffer, C.L.; et al. A perspective on cancer cell metastasis. Science2011.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037685&req=5

ijms-17-01405-f002: Schematic of the initial phases of metastatic dissemination. A subset of cells of the primary tumor acquires an aggressive phenotype and can detach from the tumor, entering the vasculature. Circulating tumor cells are subjected to chemotactic attraction towards favorable microenvironments called pre-metastatic niches, where they can extravasate and start to form a secondary tumor. Modified with permission from [3] Chaffer, C.L.; et al. A perspective on cancer cell metastasis. Science2011.
Mentions: In vitro models involving the co-culture between breast cancer cells (BCCs) and bone cells have been exploited to study the mechanisms driving the metastatic process since the very initial events. As stated in the introduction, the metastatic spreading of a tumor begins with the acquisition of an aggressive phenotype by a subset of cells which allows them to detach from the primary tumor and migrate towards a secondary organ (Figure 2) [3].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Advanced breast cancer frequently metastasizes to bone through a multistep process involving the detachment of cells from the primary tumor, their intravasation into the bloodstream, adhesion to the endothelium and extravasation into the bone, culminating with the establishment of a vicious cycle causing extensive bone lysis. In recent years, the crosstalk between tumor cells and secondary organs microenvironment is gaining much attention, being indicated as a crucial aspect in all metastatic steps. To investigate the complex interrelation between the tumor and the microenvironment, both in vitro and in vivo models have been exploited. In vitro models have some advantages over in vivo, mainly the possibility to thoroughly dissect in controlled conditions and with only human cells the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the metastatic progression. In this article we will review the main results deriving from in vitro co-culture models, describing mechanisms activated in the crosstalk between breast cancer and bone cells which drive the different metastatic steps.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus