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Sexually Dimorphic Gene Expression Associated with Growth and Reproduction of Tongue Sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis ) Revealed by Brain Transcriptome Analysis

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome of one- and two-year-old male and female brains of Cynoglossus semilaevis by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. A total of 77,066 transcripts, corresponding to 21,475 unigenes, were obtained with a N50 value of 4349 bp. Of these unigenes, 33 genes were found to have significant differential expression and potentially associated with growth, from which 18 genes were down-regulated and 12 genes were up-regulated in two-year-old males, most of these genes had no significant differences in expression among one-year-old males and females and two-year-old females. A similar analysis was conducted to look for genes associated with reproduction; 25 genes were identified, among them, five genes were found to be down regulated and 20 genes up regulated in two-year-old males, again, most of the genes had no significant expression differences among the other three. The performance of up regulated genes in Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was significantly different between two-year-old males and females. Males had a high gene expression in genetic information processing, while female’s highly expressed genes were mainly enriched on organismal systems. Our work identified a set of sex-biased genes potentially associated with growth and reproduction that might be the candidate factors affecting sexual dimorphism of tongue sole, laying the foundation to understand the complex process of sex determination of this economic valuable species.

No MeSH data available.


Gene expression profiling in brain tissue between male and female tongue sole at two developmental stages. Non-expressed genes (NEGs) marked as black dots. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) marked as dark blue and light blue dots. Co-expressed genes (CEGs) marked as red dots.
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ijms-17-01402-f002: Gene expression profiling in brain tissue between male and female tongue sole at two developmental stages. Non-expressed genes (NEGs) marked as black dots. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) marked as dark blue and light blue dots. Co-expressed genes (CEGs) marked as red dots.

Mentions: Gene expression profiling of the male vs. female brain at two developmental stages are plotted in Figure 2. From the total of 21,475 transcribed genes, 771 genes were found to have sex-specific expression pattern in one-year-old fish, 469 of them were up-regulated in the male and the rest in the female. For the two-year-old fish, the number of DEGs (5498 genes) was about seven times greater than that in one-year-old fish. Among those DEGs, 3025 genes were found to be up-regulated in male, and the rest in female. More up-regulated genes were found in M2 than F2, which might be related to the maturation of males in this stage. Overall, co-expressed genes (CEGs) still made up the majority of all genes at both developmental stages. Transcriptome profiling and differentially expressed genes were listed in supplementary Table S2. DEGs, CEGs and NEGs between male and female tongue sole were shown in supplementary Table S4.


Sexually Dimorphic Gene Expression Associated with Growth and Reproduction of Tongue Sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis ) Revealed by Brain Transcriptome Analysis
Gene expression profiling in brain tissue between male and female tongue sole at two developmental stages. Non-expressed genes (NEGs) marked as black dots. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) marked as dark blue and light blue dots. Co-expressed genes (CEGs) marked as red dots.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037682&req=5

ijms-17-01402-f002: Gene expression profiling in brain tissue between male and female tongue sole at two developmental stages. Non-expressed genes (NEGs) marked as black dots. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) marked as dark blue and light blue dots. Co-expressed genes (CEGs) marked as red dots.
Mentions: Gene expression profiling of the male vs. female brain at two developmental stages are plotted in Figure 2. From the total of 21,475 transcribed genes, 771 genes were found to have sex-specific expression pattern in one-year-old fish, 469 of them were up-regulated in the male and the rest in the female. For the two-year-old fish, the number of DEGs (5498 genes) was about seven times greater than that in one-year-old fish. Among those DEGs, 3025 genes were found to be up-regulated in male, and the rest in female. More up-regulated genes were found in M2 than F2, which might be related to the maturation of males in this stage. Overall, co-expressed genes (CEGs) still made up the majority of all genes at both developmental stages. Transcriptome profiling and differentially expressed genes were listed in supplementary Table S2. DEGs, CEGs and NEGs between male and female tongue sole were shown in supplementary Table S4.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome of one- and two-year-old male and female brains of Cynoglossus semilaevis by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. A total of 77,066 transcripts, corresponding to 21,475 unigenes, were obtained with a N50 value of 4349 bp. Of these unigenes, 33 genes were found to have significant differential expression and potentially associated with growth, from which 18 genes were down-regulated and 12 genes were up-regulated in two-year-old males, most of these genes had no significant differences in expression among one-year-old males and females and two-year-old females. A similar analysis was conducted to look for genes associated with reproduction; 25 genes were identified, among them, five genes were found to be down regulated and 20 genes up regulated in two-year-old males, again, most of the genes had no significant expression differences among the other three. The performance of up regulated genes in Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was significantly different between two-year-old males and females. Males had a high gene expression in genetic information processing, while female’s highly expressed genes were mainly enriched on organismal systems. Our work identified a set of sex-biased genes potentially associated with growth and reproduction that might be the candidate factors affecting sexual dimorphism of tongue sole, laying the foundation to understand the complex process of sex determination of this economic valuable species.

No MeSH data available.