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Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI) is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR) is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity.

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The signal interference of an MFC sensor by the combined shock of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity in a continuous flow-through mode: (A) the MFC sensor operated with background acetate of 0.3 mM; (B) the MFC sensor operated with background acetate of 5 mM.
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ijms-17-01392-f003: The signal interference of an MFC sensor by the combined shock of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity in a continuous flow-through mode: (A) the MFC sensor operated with background acetate of 0.3 mM; (B) the MFC sensor operated with background acetate of 5 mM.

Mentions: In this study, this situation of a combined shock of BOD and toxicity was simulated by conducting the acetate (0.3, 0.5 and 5 mM)/Cu(II) (3 mg/L) combined shocks in a continuous flow-through mode to three MFC sensors. Specifically, when the background organic matter concentration was fixed at 0.3 mM, the current generation experienced a sharp increase in the combined shock of 0.5 mM acetate/3 mg/L Cu(II) and 5 mM acetate/3 mg/L Cu(II), while it showed a slight drop in the combined shock of 0.3 mM acetate/3 mg/L Cu(II) (Figure 3A). When the background organic matter concentration was fixed at 5 mM, the current generations all experienced a sharp decrease in the combined shock of 0.3 mM acetate/3 mg/L Cu(II), 0.5 mM acetate/3 mg/L Cu(II), and 5 mM acetate/3 mg/L Cu(II) (Figure 3B). These results clearly depict the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity, and the trend and the amplitude of the output signal was determined by the concentration of the organic matter/toxic agents, as well as the background organic matter concentration.


Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter
The signal interference of an MFC sensor by the combined shock of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity in a continuous flow-through mode: (A) the MFC sensor operated with background acetate of 0.3 mM; (B) the MFC sensor operated with background acetate of 5 mM.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037672&req=5

ijms-17-01392-f003: The signal interference of an MFC sensor by the combined shock of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity in a continuous flow-through mode: (A) the MFC sensor operated with background acetate of 0.3 mM; (B) the MFC sensor operated with background acetate of 5 mM.
Mentions: In this study, this situation of a combined shock of BOD and toxicity was simulated by conducting the acetate (0.3, 0.5 and 5 mM)/Cu(II) (3 mg/L) combined shocks in a continuous flow-through mode to three MFC sensors. Specifically, when the background organic matter concentration was fixed at 0.3 mM, the current generation experienced a sharp increase in the combined shock of 0.5 mM acetate/3 mg/L Cu(II) and 5 mM acetate/3 mg/L Cu(II), while it showed a slight drop in the combined shock of 0.3 mM acetate/3 mg/L Cu(II) (Figure 3A). When the background organic matter concentration was fixed at 5 mM, the current generations all experienced a sharp decrease in the combined shock of 0.3 mM acetate/3 mg/L Cu(II), 0.5 mM acetate/3 mg/L Cu(II), and 5 mM acetate/3 mg/L Cu(II) (Figure 3B). These results clearly depict the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity, and the trend and the amplitude of the output signal was determined by the concentration of the organic matter/toxic agents, as well as the background organic matter concentration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI) is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR) is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus