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The Extract of Aster Koraiensis Prevents Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats and Its Active Compound, Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits AGE Formation and AGE/RAGE Interaction

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Retinal capillary cell loss is a hallmark of early diabetic retinal changes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to contribute to retinal microvascular cell loss in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the protective effects of Aster koraiensis extract (AKE) against damage to retinal vascular cells were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. To examine this issue further, AGE accumulation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were investigated using retinal trypsin digests from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling)-positive retinal microvascular cells were markedly increased. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that AGEs were accumulated within the retinal microvascular cells, and this accumulation paralleled the activation of NF-κB and the expression of iNOS in the diabetic rats. However, AKE prevented retinal microvascular cell apoptosis through the inhibition of AGE accumulation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, to determine the active compounds of AKE, two major compounds, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were tested in an in vitro assay. Among these compounds, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced AGE formation as well as AGE/RAGE (receptor for AGEs) binding activity. These results suggest that AKE, particularly chlorogenic acid, is useful in inhibiting AGE accumulation in retinal vessels and exerts a preventive effect against the injuries of diabetic retinal vascular cells.

No MeSH data available.


The HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) chromatogram of the EtOH (ethanol) extract of Aster koraiensis (AKE) with UV (ultraviolet) detection at 325 nm.
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nutrients-08-00585-f001: The HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) chromatogram of the EtOH (ethanol) extract of Aster koraiensis (AKE) with UV (ultraviolet) detection at 325 nm.

Mentions: The contents of major compounds in AKE were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The peaks of chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid were confirmed from standard chemicals (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). A Runa C-18 analytical column (i.d., 4.6 mm × 250, 5.0 µm, Phenomenex, Torrance, CA, USA) was used with the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% acetic acid in water (A) and acetonitrile (B). The mobile phase gradient elution was programmed as follows: 0–25 min, 90%–86% A; 25–60 min, 86%–75% A; 60–65 min, 75% A. The flow rate of the mobile phase was set at 1.0 mL/min. The column temperature was maintained at 30 °C. The sample injection volume was set at 5 µL and a MWD (multiple wavelength detector) set at 325 nm (Figure 1).


The Extract of Aster Koraiensis Prevents Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats and Its Active Compound, Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits AGE Formation and AGE/RAGE Interaction
The HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) chromatogram of the EtOH (ethanol) extract of Aster koraiensis (AKE) with UV (ultraviolet) detection at 325 nm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037569&req=5

nutrients-08-00585-f001: The HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) chromatogram of the EtOH (ethanol) extract of Aster koraiensis (AKE) with UV (ultraviolet) detection at 325 nm.
Mentions: The contents of major compounds in AKE were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The peaks of chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid were confirmed from standard chemicals (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). A Runa C-18 analytical column (i.d., 4.6 mm × 250, 5.0 µm, Phenomenex, Torrance, CA, USA) was used with the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% acetic acid in water (A) and acetonitrile (B). The mobile phase gradient elution was programmed as follows: 0–25 min, 90%–86% A; 25–60 min, 86%–75% A; 60–65 min, 75% A. The flow rate of the mobile phase was set at 1.0 mL/min. The column temperature was maintained at 30 °C. The sample injection volume was set at 5 µL and a MWD (multiple wavelength detector) set at 325 nm (Figure 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Retinal capillary cell loss is a hallmark of early diabetic retinal changes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to contribute to retinal microvascular cell loss in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the protective effects of Aster koraiensis extract (AKE) against damage to retinal vascular cells were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. To examine this issue further, AGE accumulation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were investigated using retinal trypsin digests from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling)-positive retinal microvascular cells were markedly increased. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that AGEs were accumulated within the retinal microvascular cells, and this accumulation paralleled the activation of NF-κB and the expression of iNOS in the diabetic rats. However, AKE prevented retinal microvascular cell apoptosis through the inhibition of AGE accumulation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, to determine the active compounds of AKE, two major compounds, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were tested in an in vitro assay. Among these compounds, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced AGE formation as well as AGE/RAGE (receptor for AGEs) binding activity. These results suggest that AKE, particularly chlorogenic acid, is useful in inhibiting AGE accumulation in retinal vessels and exerts a preventive effect against the injuries of diabetic retinal vascular cells.

No MeSH data available.