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Exercise, Appetite and Weight Control: Are There Differences between Men and Women?

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recent years have witnessed significant research interest surrounding the interaction among exercise, appetite and energy balance, which has important implications for health. The majority of exercise and appetite regulation studies have been conducted in males. Consequently, opportunities to examine sex-based differences have been limited, but represent an interesting avenue of inquiry considering postulations that men experience greater weight loss after exercise interventions than women. This article reviews the scientific literature relating to the acute and chronic effects of exercise on appetite control in men and women. The consensus of evidence demonstrates that appetite, appetite-regulatory hormone and energy intake responses to acute exercise do not differ between the sexes, and there is little evidence indicating compensatory changes occur after acute exercise in either sex. Limited evidence suggests women respond to the initiation of exercise training with more robust compensatory alterations in appetite-regulatory hormones than men, but whether this translates to long-term differences is unknown. Current exercise training investigations do not support sex-based differences in appetite or objectively assessed energy intake, and increasing exercise energy expenditure elicits at most a partial energy intake compensation in both sexes. Future well-controlled acute and chronic exercise studies directly comparing men and women are required to expand this evidence base.

No MeSH data available.


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Total daily energy intake before (□) and after (■) a 12-week aerobic exercise training intervention in overweight and obese men (n = 35) and women (n = 72). Total daily energy intake was quantified objectively using laboratory-based test meal days at Weeks 0 and 12. On each day, participants were provided with an individualised fixed-energy breakfast (ad libitum at Week 0), fixed-energy lunch, ad libitum dinner and evening snack box. * Significant difference between women and men p ≤ 0.05. Values are mean (SD). Data from reference [8]. © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Reproduced with permission.
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nutrients-08-00583-f004: Total daily energy intake before (□) and after (■) a 12-week aerobic exercise training intervention in overweight and obese men (n = 35) and women (n = 72). Total daily energy intake was quantified objectively using laboratory-based test meal days at Weeks 0 and 12. On each day, participants were provided with an individualised fixed-energy breakfast (ad libitum at Week 0), fixed-energy lunch, ad libitum dinner and evening snack box. * Significant difference between women and men p ≤ 0.05. Values are mean (SD). Data from reference [8]. © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Reproduced with permission.

Mentions: When exercise is supervised and energy intake is quantified objectively using laboratory-based ad libitum meals, no changes in daily energy intake were observed in overweight and obese men or women after a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention (Figure 4) [8]. The authors of this study also highlighted the large variability in individual weight loss responses, both in magnitude and direction, which may afford some insight into why many individuals do not achieve their predicted changes in body composition with chronic exercise. Such heterogeneity in response to alterations in energy balance has been recognised previously [8,9,29,35,37,38]. Interestingly and pertinent to this review, overweight and obese men and women typically demonstrate a similar degree of individual variability when the exercise-induced energy expenditure is equivalent between the sexes [8,38]. For example, Caudwell and colleagues [8] reported body mass changes ranging from −14.7 to 2.0 kg in men and −10.0 to 4 kg in women. Furthermore, when participants are retrospectively classified as “responders” or “non-responders” (based on their actual weight loss relative to their predicted weight loss), there is some evidence supporting higher ad libitum energy intake in individuals experiencing lower than their predicted weight loss [29,37,38].


Exercise, Appetite and Weight Control: Are There Differences between Men and Women?
Total daily energy intake before (□) and after (■) a 12-week aerobic exercise training intervention in overweight and obese men (n = 35) and women (n = 72). Total daily energy intake was quantified objectively using laboratory-based test meal days at Weeks 0 and 12. On each day, participants were provided with an individualised fixed-energy breakfast (ad libitum at Week 0), fixed-energy lunch, ad libitum dinner and evening snack box. * Significant difference between women and men p ≤ 0.05. Values are mean (SD). Data from reference [8]. © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Reproduced with permission.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037567&req=5

nutrients-08-00583-f004: Total daily energy intake before (□) and after (■) a 12-week aerobic exercise training intervention in overweight and obese men (n = 35) and women (n = 72). Total daily energy intake was quantified objectively using laboratory-based test meal days at Weeks 0 and 12. On each day, participants were provided with an individualised fixed-energy breakfast (ad libitum at Week 0), fixed-energy lunch, ad libitum dinner and evening snack box. * Significant difference between women and men p ≤ 0.05. Values are mean (SD). Data from reference [8]. © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Reproduced with permission.
Mentions: When exercise is supervised and energy intake is quantified objectively using laboratory-based ad libitum meals, no changes in daily energy intake were observed in overweight and obese men or women after a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention (Figure 4) [8]. The authors of this study also highlighted the large variability in individual weight loss responses, both in magnitude and direction, which may afford some insight into why many individuals do not achieve their predicted changes in body composition with chronic exercise. Such heterogeneity in response to alterations in energy balance has been recognised previously [8,9,29,35,37,38]. Interestingly and pertinent to this review, overweight and obese men and women typically demonstrate a similar degree of individual variability when the exercise-induced energy expenditure is equivalent between the sexes [8,38]. For example, Caudwell and colleagues [8] reported body mass changes ranging from −14.7 to 2.0 kg in men and −10.0 to 4 kg in women. Furthermore, when participants are retrospectively classified as “responders” or “non-responders” (based on their actual weight loss relative to their predicted weight loss), there is some evidence supporting higher ad libitum energy intake in individuals experiencing lower than their predicted weight loss [29,37,38].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recent years have witnessed significant research interest surrounding the interaction among exercise, appetite and energy balance, which has important implications for health. The majority of exercise and appetite regulation studies have been conducted in males. Consequently, opportunities to examine sex-based differences have been limited, but represent an interesting avenue of inquiry considering postulations that men experience greater weight loss after exercise interventions than women. This article reviews the scientific literature relating to the acute and chronic effects of exercise on appetite control in men and women. The consensus of evidence demonstrates that appetite, appetite-regulatory hormone and energy intake responses to acute exercise do not differ between the sexes, and there is little evidence indicating compensatory changes occur after acute exercise in either sex. Limited evidence suggests women respond to the initiation of exercise training with more robust compensatory alterations in appetite-regulatory hormones than men, but whether this translates to long-term differences is unknown. Current exercise training investigations do not support sex-based differences in appetite or objectively assessed energy intake, and increasing exercise energy expenditure elicits at most a partial energy intake compensation in both sexes. Future well-controlled acute and chronic exercise studies directly comparing men and women are required to expand this evidence base.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus