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Exercise, Appetite and Weight Control: Are There Differences between Men and Women?

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recent years have witnessed significant research interest surrounding the interaction among exercise, appetite and energy balance, which has important implications for health. The majority of exercise and appetite regulation studies have been conducted in males. Consequently, opportunities to examine sex-based differences have been limited, but represent an interesting avenue of inquiry considering postulations that men experience greater weight loss after exercise interventions than women. This article reviews the scientific literature relating to the acute and chronic effects of exercise on appetite control in men and women. The consensus of evidence demonstrates that appetite, appetite-regulatory hormone and energy intake responses to acute exercise do not differ between the sexes, and there is little evidence indicating compensatory changes occur after acute exercise in either sex. Limited evidence suggests women respond to the initiation of exercise training with more robust compensatory alterations in appetite-regulatory hormones than men, but whether this translates to long-term differences is unknown. Current exercise training investigations do not support sex-based differences in appetite or objectively assessed energy intake, and increasing exercise energy expenditure elicits at most a partial energy intake compensation in both sexes. Future well-controlled acute and chronic exercise studies directly comparing men and women are required to expand this evidence base.

No MeSH data available.


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Total area under the curve (AUC) for plasma acylated ghrelin (a) and insulin (b) concentrations in the control (□), exercise with energy deficit () and exercise with energy balance (■) conditions in nine men and nine women. Exercise involved four consecutive days of treadmill exercise at 50%–65% peak oxygen uptake until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended. * Significant difference between exercise intervention and control; † Significant difference between exercise with energy deficit and exercise with energy balance. Values are mean (error bars not stated in original article). Data reproduced from reference [13]. © The American Physiological Society. Reproduced with permission.
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nutrients-08-00583-f003: Total area under the curve (AUC) for plasma acylated ghrelin (a) and insulin (b) concentrations in the control (□), exercise with energy deficit () and exercise with energy balance (■) conditions in nine men and nine women. Exercise involved four consecutive days of treadmill exercise at 50%–65% peak oxygen uptake until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended. * Significant difference between exercise intervention and control; † Significant difference between exercise with energy deficit and exercise with energy balance. Values are mean (error bars not stated in original article). Data reproduced from reference [13]. © The American Physiological Society. Reproduced with permission.

Mentions: Early evidence of exercise-induced sex differences in appetite hormones was provided by Hickey and colleagues [90]. In this study, 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training, without a change in body mass or body fat, significantly reduced fasting insulin and leptin concentrations in women but not in men. Subsequently, Hagobian and colleagues [13] examined appetite hormone responses to meal intake before and after four consecutive days of exercise in previously sedentary overweight and obese men and women. Daily aerobic exercise was performed on a treadmill at 50%–65% 2peak resulting in an energy expenditure equivalent to ~30% of total daily energy expenditure and was completed with and without dietary replacement of the exercise-induced energy deficit. The authors reported that acylated ghrelin concentrations were higher and insulin concentrations were lower after both exercise interventions in women (Figure 3). In contrast, although men demonstrated lower insulin concentrations in the energy deficit condition, this effect was eliminated with energy replacement and acylated ghrelin was not different after exercise regardless of energy status (Figure 3). These findings suggest that women experience perturbations in appetite-regulatory hormones conducive to appetite stimulation in response to the initiation of exercise training. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the mechanisms governing energy balance are more tightly regulated in women than men.


Exercise, Appetite and Weight Control: Are There Differences between Men and Women?
Total area under the curve (AUC) for plasma acylated ghrelin (a) and insulin (b) concentrations in the control (□), exercise with energy deficit () and exercise with energy balance (■) conditions in nine men and nine women. Exercise involved four consecutive days of treadmill exercise at 50%–65% peak oxygen uptake until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended. * Significant difference between exercise intervention and control; † Significant difference between exercise with energy deficit and exercise with energy balance. Values are mean (error bars not stated in original article). Data reproduced from reference [13]. © The American Physiological Society. Reproduced with permission.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037567&req=5

nutrients-08-00583-f003: Total area under the curve (AUC) for plasma acylated ghrelin (a) and insulin (b) concentrations in the control (□), exercise with energy deficit () and exercise with energy balance (■) conditions in nine men and nine women. Exercise involved four consecutive days of treadmill exercise at 50%–65% peak oxygen uptake until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended. * Significant difference between exercise intervention and control; † Significant difference between exercise with energy deficit and exercise with energy balance. Values are mean (error bars not stated in original article). Data reproduced from reference [13]. © The American Physiological Society. Reproduced with permission.
Mentions: Early evidence of exercise-induced sex differences in appetite hormones was provided by Hickey and colleagues [90]. In this study, 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training, without a change in body mass or body fat, significantly reduced fasting insulin and leptin concentrations in women but not in men. Subsequently, Hagobian and colleagues [13] examined appetite hormone responses to meal intake before and after four consecutive days of exercise in previously sedentary overweight and obese men and women. Daily aerobic exercise was performed on a treadmill at 50%–65% 2peak resulting in an energy expenditure equivalent to ~30% of total daily energy expenditure and was completed with and without dietary replacement of the exercise-induced energy deficit. The authors reported that acylated ghrelin concentrations were higher and insulin concentrations were lower after both exercise interventions in women (Figure 3). In contrast, although men demonstrated lower insulin concentrations in the energy deficit condition, this effect was eliminated with energy replacement and acylated ghrelin was not different after exercise regardless of energy status (Figure 3). These findings suggest that women experience perturbations in appetite-regulatory hormones conducive to appetite stimulation in response to the initiation of exercise training. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the mechanisms governing energy balance are more tightly regulated in women than men.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recent years have witnessed significant research interest surrounding the interaction among exercise, appetite and energy balance, which has important implications for health. The majority of exercise and appetite regulation studies have been conducted in males. Consequently, opportunities to examine sex-based differences have been limited, but represent an interesting avenue of inquiry considering postulations that men experience greater weight loss after exercise interventions than women. This article reviews the scientific literature relating to the acute and chronic effects of exercise on appetite control in men and women. The consensus of evidence demonstrates that appetite, appetite-regulatory hormone and energy intake responses to acute exercise do not differ between the sexes, and there is little evidence indicating compensatory changes occur after acute exercise in either sex. Limited evidence suggests women respond to the initiation of exercise training with more robust compensatory alterations in appetite-regulatory hormones than men, but whether this translates to long-term differences is unknown. Current exercise training investigations do not support sex-based differences in appetite or objectively assessed energy intake, and increasing exercise energy expenditure elicits at most a partial energy intake compensation in both sexes. Future well-controlled acute and chronic exercise studies directly comparing men and women are required to expand this evidence base.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus