Limits...
Exercise, Appetite and Weight Control: Are There Differences between Men and Women?

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recent years have witnessed significant research interest surrounding the interaction among exercise, appetite and energy balance, which has important implications for health. The majority of exercise and appetite regulation studies have been conducted in males. Consequently, opportunities to examine sex-based differences have been limited, but represent an interesting avenue of inquiry considering postulations that men experience greater weight loss after exercise interventions than women. This article reviews the scientific literature relating to the acute and chronic effects of exercise on appetite control in men and women. The consensus of evidence demonstrates that appetite, appetite-regulatory hormone and energy intake responses to acute exercise do not differ between the sexes, and there is little evidence indicating compensatory changes occur after acute exercise in either sex. Limited evidence suggests women respond to the initiation of exercise training with more robust compensatory alterations in appetite-regulatory hormones than men, but whether this translates to long-term differences is unknown. Current exercise training investigations do not support sex-based differences in appetite or objectively assessed energy intake, and increasing exercise energy expenditure elicits at most a partial energy intake compensation in both sexes. Future well-controlled acute and chronic exercise studies directly comparing men and women are required to expand this evidence base.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Total ad libitum energy intake during a single laboratory-based buffet meal in the control (□) and exercise (■) conditions in 11 men and 10 women. Exercise involved a single bout of cycling performed at 70% peak oxygen uptake until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended. * Significant difference between women and men p ≤ 0.05. Values are mean (SD). Data from reference [14]. © 2008 Canadian Science Publishing or its licensors. Reproduced with permission.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037567&req=5

nutrients-08-00583-f002: Total ad libitum energy intake during a single laboratory-based buffet meal in the control (□) and exercise (■) conditions in 11 men and 10 women. Exercise involved a single bout of cycling performed at 70% peak oxygen uptake until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended. * Significant difference between women and men p ≤ 0.05. Values are mean (SD). Data from reference [14]. © 2008 Canadian Science Publishing or its licensors. Reproduced with permission.

Mentions: In addition to the appetite and hormone responses discussed in the previous section, Hagobian and colleagues [14] reported that absolute energy intake was unchanged in response to a single bout of cycling inducing a similar energy expenditure (30% of total daily energy expenditure) in men and women (energy expenditure: men, 975 kcal; women, 713 kcal) (Figure 2). The authors observed large variability in the energy intake responses (note large SDs on Figure 2 especially for men) with evidence of both higher and lower energy intake after exercise compared with a resting control condition in both men and women, which supports previous acute exercise and appetite regulation studies in healthy weight [78] and overweight and obese [62] women. Although the authors reported no significant change in energy intake after acute exercise in men or women, it is worth noting that mean ad libitum energy intake was higher in men after exercise (Figure 2) [14]. A closer examination of the mean differences and estimated standardised effect sizes revealed that energy intake after the exercise bout was 432 kcal higher than control in men (effect size = 0.68 indicating a moderate to large effect) compared with a 1 kcal increase after exercise in women (effect size = 0.004 indicating a trivial effect) (Figure 2). While this opposes the hypothesis that women are more likely to compensate for acute exercise-induced energy deficits by increasing energy intake, the conclusion that energy intake was unchanged in men should perhaps be interpreted with caution.


Exercise, Appetite and Weight Control: Are There Differences between Men and Women?
Total ad libitum energy intake during a single laboratory-based buffet meal in the control (□) and exercise (■) conditions in 11 men and 10 women. Exercise involved a single bout of cycling performed at 70% peak oxygen uptake until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended. * Significant difference between women and men p ≤ 0.05. Values are mean (SD). Data from reference [14]. © 2008 Canadian Science Publishing or its licensors. Reproduced with permission.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037567&req=5

nutrients-08-00583-f002: Total ad libitum energy intake during a single laboratory-based buffet meal in the control (□) and exercise (■) conditions in 11 men and 10 women. Exercise involved a single bout of cycling performed at 70% peak oxygen uptake until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended. * Significant difference between women and men p ≤ 0.05. Values are mean (SD). Data from reference [14]. © 2008 Canadian Science Publishing or its licensors. Reproduced with permission.
Mentions: In addition to the appetite and hormone responses discussed in the previous section, Hagobian and colleagues [14] reported that absolute energy intake was unchanged in response to a single bout of cycling inducing a similar energy expenditure (30% of total daily energy expenditure) in men and women (energy expenditure: men, 975 kcal; women, 713 kcal) (Figure 2). The authors observed large variability in the energy intake responses (note large SDs on Figure 2 especially for men) with evidence of both higher and lower energy intake after exercise compared with a resting control condition in both men and women, which supports previous acute exercise and appetite regulation studies in healthy weight [78] and overweight and obese [62] women. Although the authors reported no significant change in energy intake after acute exercise in men or women, it is worth noting that mean ad libitum energy intake was higher in men after exercise (Figure 2) [14]. A closer examination of the mean differences and estimated standardised effect sizes revealed that energy intake after the exercise bout was 432 kcal higher than control in men (effect size = 0.68 indicating a moderate to large effect) compared with a 1 kcal increase after exercise in women (effect size = 0.004 indicating a trivial effect) (Figure 2). While this opposes the hypothesis that women are more likely to compensate for acute exercise-induced energy deficits by increasing energy intake, the conclusion that energy intake was unchanged in men should perhaps be interpreted with caution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recent years have witnessed significant research interest surrounding the interaction among exercise, appetite and energy balance, which has important implications for health. The majority of exercise and appetite regulation studies have been conducted in males. Consequently, opportunities to examine sex-based differences have been limited, but represent an interesting avenue of inquiry considering postulations that men experience greater weight loss after exercise interventions than women. This article reviews the scientific literature relating to the acute and chronic effects of exercise on appetite control in men and women. The consensus of evidence demonstrates that appetite, appetite-regulatory hormone and energy intake responses to acute exercise do not differ between the sexes, and there is little evidence indicating compensatory changes occur after acute exercise in either sex. Limited evidence suggests women respond to the initiation of exercise training with more robust compensatory alterations in appetite-regulatory hormones than men, but whether this translates to long-term differences is unknown. Current exercise training investigations do not support sex-based differences in appetite or objectively assessed energy intake, and increasing exercise energy expenditure elicits at most a partial energy intake compensation in both sexes. Future well-controlled acute and chronic exercise studies directly comparing men and women are required to expand this evidence base.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus