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Exercise, Appetite and Weight Control: Are There Differences between Men and Women?

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recent years have witnessed significant research interest surrounding the interaction among exercise, appetite and energy balance, which has important implications for health. The majority of exercise and appetite regulation studies have been conducted in males. Consequently, opportunities to examine sex-based differences have been limited, but represent an interesting avenue of inquiry considering postulations that men experience greater weight loss after exercise interventions than women. This article reviews the scientific literature relating to the acute and chronic effects of exercise on appetite control in men and women. The consensus of evidence demonstrates that appetite, appetite-regulatory hormone and energy intake responses to acute exercise do not differ between the sexes, and there is little evidence indicating compensatory changes occur after acute exercise in either sex. Limited evidence suggests women respond to the initiation of exercise training with more robust compensatory alterations in appetite-regulatory hormones than men, but whether this translates to long-term differences is unknown. Current exercise training investigations do not support sex-based differences in appetite or objectively assessed energy intake, and increasing exercise energy expenditure elicits at most a partial energy intake compensation in both sexes. Future well-controlled acute and chronic exercise studies directly comparing men and women are required to expand this evidence base.

No MeSH data available.


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Time averaged total area under the curve (AUC) for appetite ratings (a); and plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations (b) in the control (□) and exercise (■) conditions. Each condition was 7 h and a single bout of exercise was performed between 0 to 1 h in the exercise condition (60 min running at 70% peak oxygen uptake). † Significant difference between exercise and control p ≤ 0.05; * Significant difference between women and men p ≤ 0.05. Values are mean (SEM), appetite ratings: n = 10 men, n = 10 women; acylated ghrelin: n = 8 men, n = 8 women. Data reproduced from reference [15]. © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Reproduced with permission.
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nutrients-08-00583-f001: Time averaged total area under the curve (AUC) for appetite ratings (a); and plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations (b) in the control (□) and exercise (■) conditions. Each condition was 7 h and a single bout of exercise was performed between 0 to 1 h in the exercise condition (60 min running at 70% peak oxygen uptake). † Significant difference between exercise and control p ≤ 0.05; * Significant difference between women and men p ≤ 0.05. Values are mean (SEM), appetite ratings: n = 10 men, n = 10 women; acylated ghrelin: n = 8 men, n = 8 women. Data reproduced from reference [15]. © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Reproduced with permission.

Mentions: Recently, Alajmi and colleagues [15] examined the effect of 60 min treadmill running at 70% 2peak on appetite and acylated ghrelin concentrations over 7 h in healthy men and women (studied during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle). Despite the greater net energy expenditure during exercise in the men (3971 vs. 2536 kJ in men and women, respectively), both men and women exhibited an equivalent suppression in appetite and acylated ghrelin concentrations in response to acute exercise (Figure 1), with no evidence of compensatory responses to exercise in the 7 h observation period in either sex. Interestingly, the female participants in this study exhibited significantly greater acylated ghrelin concentrations compared with men. However, the relevance of this difference is unclear given subjective appetite ratings were greater in men than women. Furthermore, despite the greater appetite and lower acylated ghrelin concentrations in men than women, the appetite and acylated ghrelin responses to exercise were similar between the sexes.


Exercise, Appetite and Weight Control: Are There Differences between Men and Women?
Time averaged total area under the curve (AUC) for appetite ratings (a); and plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations (b) in the control (□) and exercise (■) conditions. Each condition was 7 h and a single bout of exercise was performed between 0 to 1 h in the exercise condition (60 min running at 70% peak oxygen uptake). † Significant difference between exercise and control p ≤ 0.05; * Significant difference between women and men p ≤ 0.05. Values are mean (SEM), appetite ratings: n = 10 men, n = 10 women; acylated ghrelin: n = 8 men, n = 8 women. Data reproduced from reference [15]. © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Reproduced with permission.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037567&req=5

nutrients-08-00583-f001: Time averaged total area under the curve (AUC) for appetite ratings (a); and plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations (b) in the control (□) and exercise (■) conditions. Each condition was 7 h and a single bout of exercise was performed between 0 to 1 h in the exercise condition (60 min running at 70% peak oxygen uptake). † Significant difference between exercise and control p ≤ 0.05; * Significant difference between women and men p ≤ 0.05. Values are mean (SEM), appetite ratings: n = 10 men, n = 10 women; acylated ghrelin: n = 8 men, n = 8 women. Data reproduced from reference [15]. © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Reproduced with permission.
Mentions: Recently, Alajmi and colleagues [15] examined the effect of 60 min treadmill running at 70% 2peak on appetite and acylated ghrelin concentrations over 7 h in healthy men and women (studied during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle). Despite the greater net energy expenditure during exercise in the men (3971 vs. 2536 kJ in men and women, respectively), both men and women exhibited an equivalent suppression in appetite and acylated ghrelin concentrations in response to acute exercise (Figure 1), with no evidence of compensatory responses to exercise in the 7 h observation period in either sex. Interestingly, the female participants in this study exhibited significantly greater acylated ghrelin concentrations compared with men. However, the relevance of this difference is unclear given subjective appetite ratings were greater in men than women. Furthermore, despite the greater appetite and lower acylated ghrelin concentrations in men than women, the appetite and acylated ghrelin responses to exercise were similar between the sexes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recent years have witnessed significant research interest surrounding the interaction among exercise, appetite and energy balance, which has important implications for health. The majority of exercise and appetite regulation studies have been conducted in males. Consequently, opportunities to examine sex-based differences have been limited, but represent an interesting avenue of inquiry considering postulations that men experience greater weight loss after exercise interventions than women. This article reviews the scientific literature relating to the acute and chronic effects of exercise on appetite control in men and women. The consensus of evidence demonstrates that appetite, appetite-regulatory hormone and energy intake responses to acute exercise do not differ between the sexes, and there is little evidence indicating compensatory changes occur after acute exercise in either sex. Limited evidence suggests women respond to the initiation of exercise training with more robust compensatory alterations in appetite-regulatory hormones than men, but whether this translates to long-term differences is unknown. Current exercise training investigations do not support sex-based differences in appetite or objectively assessed energy intake, and increasing exercise energy expenditure elicits at most a partial energy intake compensation in both sexes. Future well-controlled acute and chronic exercise studies directly comparing men and women are required to expand this evidence base.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus