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The Anti-Cancer Effect of Polyphenols against Breast Cancer and Cancer Stem Cells: Molecular Mechanisms

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The high incidence of breast cancer in developed and developing countries, and its correlation to cancer-related deaths, has prompted concerned scientists to discover novel alternatives to deal with this challenge. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of polyphenol structures and classifications, as well as on the carcinogenic process. The biology of breast cancer cells will also be discussed. The molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-cancer activities of numerous polyphenols, against a wide range of breast cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo, will be explained in detail. The interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in the anti-cancer activity of polyphenols will also be highlighted. In addition, the potential of polyphenols to target cancer stem cells (CSCs) via various mechanisms will be explained. Recently, the use of natural products as chemotherapeutics and chemopreventive drugs to overcome the side effects and resistance that arise from using chemical-based agents has garnered the attention of the scientific community. Polyphenol research is considered a promising field in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation depicting the multistage process, including initiation, promotion, and progression, of carcinogenesis, and the biological targets of polyphenols at each step.
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nutrients-08-00581-f001: Schematic representation depicting the multistage process, including initiation, promotion, and progression, of carcinogenesis, and the biological targets of polyphenols at each step.

Mentions: The tumorigenic process is complicated and occurs through a multistep procedure, including initiation, promotion, and progression, as illustrated in Figure 1 [14,15]. Initiation includes the entrance and distribution of cancer-causing agents in the cell, in particular, the nucleus, and interaction with DNA that finally results in the mutagenesis and emergence of the toxic effect [16]. This stage is irreversible, but can be prevented by phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes, which transform the carcinogens into less toxic and soluble products [17,18].


The Anti-Cancer Effect of Polyphenols against Breast Cancer and Cancer Stem Cells: Molecular Mechanisms
Schematic representation depicting the multistage process, including initiation, promotion, and progression, of carcinogenesis, and the biological targets of polyphenols at each step.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037565&req=5

nutrients-08-00581-f001: Schematic representation depicting the multistage process, including initiation, promotion, and progression, of carcinogenesis, and the biological targets of polyphenols at each step.
Mentions: The tumorigenic process is complicated and occurs through a multistep procedure, including initiation, promotion, and progression, as illustrated in Figure 1 [14,15]. Initiation includes the entrance and distribution of cancer-causing agents in the cell, in particular, the nucleus, and interaction with DNA that finally results in the mutagenesis and emergence of the toxic effect [16]. This stage is irreversible, but can be prevented by phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes, which transform the carcinogens into less toxic and soluble products [17,18].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The high incidence of breast cancer in developed and developing countries, and its correlation to cancer-related deaths, has prompted concerned scientists to discover novel alternatives to deal with this challenge. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of polyphenol structures and classifications, as well as on the carcinogenic process. The biology of breast cancer cells will also be discussed. The molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-cancer activities of numerous polyphenols, against a wide range of breast cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo, will be explained in detail. The interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in the anti-cancer activity of polyphenols will also be highlighted. In addition, the potential of polyphenols to target cancer stem cells (CSCs) via various mechanisms will be explained. Recently, the use of natural products as chemotherapeutics and chemopreventive drugs to overcome the side effects and resistance that arise from using chemical-based agents has garnered the attention of the scientific community. Polyphenol research is considered a promising field in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus