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Impact of the Content of Fatty Acids of Oral Fat Tolerance Tests on Postprandial Triglyceridemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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ABSTRACT

Whether the content of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could differently influence postprandial triglycerides (TG) is unknown. We examined possible differences in the postprandial TG response to fat tolerance tests (FTTs), in which SFA or unsaturated fatty acids were used. Crossover clinical trials investigating the effects of FTTs containing SFA and unsaturated fats on postprandial triglyceridemia in databases from 1994 until 2016 were searched. Of 356 studies, 338 were excluded and 18 were considered. TG net incremental areas under the curve were calculated using time-points or changes from baseline. Pooled effects of standardized mean differences and I2 test were used. Results: In 12 studies, responses to SFA versus PUFA meals, and in 16 studies versus MUFA meals were compared. Over 4 h, no differences between SFA and unsaturated fats were observed. Over 8 h a lower response to PUFA (SMD −2.28; 95% CI −4.16, −0.41) and a trend to lower response to MUFA (SMD −0.89, 95% CI −1.82, 0.04) were detected. FTTs shorter than 8 h may not be sufficient to differentiate postprandial TG after challenges with distinct fatty acids. Clinical significance of different postprandial TG responses on cardiovascular risk in the long-term deserves investigation.

No MeSH data available.


Forest plot of postprandial triglycerides of saturated fatty acids compared to polyunsaturated fatty acids over 8 h.
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nutrients-08-00580-f002: Forest plot of postprandial triglycerides of saturated fatty acids compared to polyunsaturated fatty acids over 8 h.

Mentions: The overall pooled analysis of the 12 studies comparing the effects of SFA with PUFA on postprandial TG revealed lower SMD of the net iAUC to PUFA meal than to SFA meal over 8 h (p = 0.02) (SMD −2.28; 95% CI −4.16, −0.41; I2: 96%; Figure 2) and trends of lower response to PUFA meals over 6 h (p = 0.10) (SMD −1.04, 95% CI −2.28, 0.20, I2: 95%). Over 4 h, a non-significant lower TG response was observed after the PUFA meal (p = 0.10) (SMD −0.58, 95% CI −1.29, 0.12, I2: 90%, %, Figure 3). Similar findings were observed in the first two hours after meal consumption (p = 0.02) (SMD −0.39, 95% CI −0.72, −0.05, I2: 66%).


Impact of the Content of Fatty Acids of Oral Fat Tolerance Tests on Postprandial Triglyceridemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Forest plot of postprandial triglycerides of saturated fatty acids compared to polyunsaturated fatty acids over 8 h.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037564&req=5

nutrients-08-00580-f002: Forest plot of postprandial triglycerides of saturated fatty acids compared to polyunsaturated fatty acids over 8 h.
Mentions: The overall pooled analysis of the 12 studies comparing the effects of SFA with PUFA on postprandial TG revealed lower SMD of the net iAUC to PUFA meal than to SFA meal over 8 h (p = 0.02) (SMD −2.28; 95% CI −4.16, −0.41; I2: 96%; Figure 2) and trends of lower response to PUFA meals over 6 h (p = 0.10) (SMD −1.04, 95% CI −2.28, 0.20, I2: 95%). Over 4 h, a non-significant lower TG response was observed after the PUFA meal (p = 0.10) (SMD −0.58, 95% CI −1.29, 0.12, I2: 90%, %, Figure 3). Similar findings were observed in the first two hours after meal consumption (p = 0.02) (SMD −0.39, 95% CI −0.72, −0.05, I2: 66%).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Whether the content of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could differently influence postprandial triglycerides (TG) is unknown. We examined possible differences in the postprandial TG response to fat tolerance tests (FTTs), in which SFA or unsaturated fatty acids were used. Crossover clinical trials investigating the effects of FTTs containing SFA and unsaturated fats on postprandial triglyceridemia in databases from 1994 until 2016 were searched. Of 356 studies, 338 were excluded and 18 were considered. TG net incremental areas under the curve were calculated using time-points or changes from baseline. Pooled effects of standardized mean differences and I2 test were used. Results: In 12 studies, responses to SFA versus PUFA meals, and in 16 studies versus MUFA meals were compared. Over 4 h, no differences between SFA and unsaturated fats were observed. Over 8 h a lower response to PUFA (SMD −2.28; 95% CI −4.16, −0.41) and a trend to lower response to MUFA (SMD −0.89, 95% CI −1.82, 0.04) were detected. FTTs shorter than 8 h may not be sufficient to differentiate postprandial TG after challenges with distinct fatty acids. Clinical significance of different postprandial TG responses on cardiovascular risk in the long-term deserves investigation.

No MeSH data available.