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Impact of the Content of Fatty Acids of Oral Fat Tolerance Tests on Postprandial Triglyceridemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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ABSTRACT

Whether the content of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could differently influence postprandial triglycerides (TG) is unknown. We examined possible differences in the postprandial TG response to fat tolerance tests (FTTs), in which SFA or unsaturated fatty acids were used. Crossover clinical trials investigating the effects of FTTs containing SFA and unsaturated fats on postprandial triglyceridemia in databases from 1994 until 2016 were searched. Of 356 studies, 338 were excluded and 18 were considered. TG net incremental areas under the curve were calculated using time-points or changes from baseline. Pooled effects of standardized mean differences and I2 test were used. Results: In 12 studies, responses to SFA versus PUFA meals, and in 16 studies versus MUFA meals were compared. Over 4 h, no differences between SFA and unsaturated fats were observed. Over 8 h a lower response to PUFA (SMD −2.28; 95% CI −4.16, −0.41) and a trend to lower response to MUFA (SMD −0.89, 95% CI −1.82, 0.04) were detected. FTTs shorter than 8 h may not be sufficient to differentiate postprandial TG after challenges with distinct fatty acids. Clinical significance of different postprandial TG responses on cardiovascular risk in the long-term deserves investigation.

No MeSH data available.


Flowchart of the systematic search strategy and study selection process.
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nutrients-08-00580-f001: Flowchart of the systematic search strategy and study selection process.

Mentions: Our search found 356 articles meeting eligibility criteria. From these, 276 were excluded by two authors (MMP and FGD) who independently examined the manuscripts by checking the titles and abstracts, and full-texts, and any problems of disagreement were resolved through group discussion (Figure 1). Full texts of the remaining 80 manuscripts were independently assessed in duplicate to determine inclusion/exclusion based on the quality and risk of bias (see Section 2.8). Sixty-two studies did not meet inclusion criteria (Figure 1). Among those, six studies did not compare SFA with any unsaturated fatty acids, eight were duplicated studies, in 27 mixed fatty acids (PUFA, MUFA and SFA in different proportions) were used and in 10 studies hydrogenated fatty acids were used. Standard deviation or error was not provided in 11 studies.


Impact of the Content of Fatty Acids of Oral Fat Tolerance Tests on Postprandial Triglyceridemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Flowchart of the systematic search strategy and study selection process.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037564&req=5

nutrients-08-00580-f001: Flowchart of the systematic search strategy and study selection process.
Mentions: Our search found 356 articles meeting eligibility criteria. From these, 276 were excluded by two authors (MMP and FGD) who independently examined the manuscripts by checking the titles and abstracts, and full-texts, and any problems of disagreement were resolved through group discussion (Figure 1). Full texts of the remaining 80 manuscripts were independently assessed in duplicate to determine inclusion/exclusion based on the quality and risk of bias (see Section 2.8). Sixty-two studies did not meet inclusion criteria (Figure 1). Among those, six studies did not compare SFA with any unsaturated fatty acids, eight were duplicated studies, in 27 mixed fatty acids (PUFA, MUFA and SFA in different proportions) were used and in 10 studies hydrogenated fatty acids were used. Standard deviation or error was not provided in 11 studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Whether the content of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could differently influence postprandial triglycerides (TG) is unknown. We examined possible differences in the postprandial TG response to fat tolerance tests (FTTs), in which SFA or unsaturated fatty acids were used. Crossover clinical trials investigating the effects of FTTs containing SFA and unsaturated fats on postprandial triglyceridemia in databases from 1994 until 2016 were searched. Of 356 studies, 338 were excluded and 18 were considered. TG net incremental areas under the curve were calculated using time-points or changes from baseline. Pooled effects of standardized mean differences and I2 test were used. Results: In 12 studies, responses to SFA versus PUFA meals, and in 16 studies versus MUFA meals were compared. Over 4 h, no differences between SFA and unsaturated fats were observed. Over 8 h a lower response to PUFA (SMD −2.28; 95% CI −4.16, −0.41) and a trend to lower response to MUFA (SMD −0.89, 95% CI −1.82, 0.04) were detected. FTTs shorter than 8 h may not be sufficient to differentiate postprandial TG after challenges with distinct fatty acids. Clinical significance of different postprandial TG responses on cardiovascular risk in the long-term deserves investigation.

No MeSH data available.