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Fructose Beverage Consumption Induces a Metabolic Syndrome Phenotype in the Rat: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

A high intake of refined carbohydrates, particularly the monosaccharide fructose, has been attributed to the growing epidemics of obesity and type-2 diabetes. Animal studies have helped elucidate the metabolic effects of dietary fructose, however, variations in study design make it difficult to draw conclusions. The aim of this study was to review the effects of fructose beverage consumption on body weight, systolic blood pressure and blood glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations in validated rat models. We searched Ovid Embase Classic + EmbaseMedline and Ovid Medline databases and included studies that used adolescent/adult male rats, with fructose beverage consumption for >3 weeks. Data from 26 studies were pooled by an inverse variance weighting method using random effects models, expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, 10%–21% w/v fructose beverage consumption was associated with increased rodent body weight (SMD, 0.62 (95% CI: 0.18, 1.06)), systolic blood pressure (SMD, 2.94 (95% CI: 2.10, 3.77)) and blood glucose (SMD, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.36, 1.19)), insulin (SMD, 2.32 (95% CI: 1.57, 3.07)) and triglyceride (SMD, 1.87 (95% CI: 1.39, 2.34)) concentrations. Therefore, the consumption of a low concentration fructose beverage is sufficient to cause early signs of the metabolic syndrome in adult rats.

No MeSH data available.


Forest plots of the effect of fructose consumption on adult male rodent blood glucose concentration (mean and standard deviation (SD)), split by study duration. The pooled effects estimates are represented by three diamonds; one for studies of 12 weeks or less, one for studies of greater than 12 weeks, and one representing the combined effect. Data are presented as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). p-Values are for the inverse variance random effects models with DerSimonian-Laird estimator for Tau2. Inter-study heterogeneity was tested by Cochran’s Q at a significance of p < 0.10 and quantified by I2.
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nutrients-08-00577-f004: Forest plots of the effect of fructose consumption on adult male rodent blood glucose concentration (mean and standard deviation (SD)), split by study duration. The pooled effects estimates are represented by three diamonds; one for studies of 12 weeks or less, one for studies of greater than 12 weeks, and one representing the combined effect. Data are presented as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). p-Values are for the inverse variance random effects models with DerSimonian-Laird estimator for Tau2. Inter-study heterogeneity was tested by Cochran’s Q at a significance of p < 0.10 and quantified by I2.

Mentions: The effect of fructose consumption on blood glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations is summarized in Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6, respectively. Overall, there was an effect of fructose consumption on blood glucose (Figure 4; SMD, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.36, 1.19); z = 3.64, p = 0.003), insulin (Figure 5; SMD, 2.32 (95% CI: 1.57, 3.07); z = 6.09, p < 0.0001) and triglyceride (Figure 6; SMD, 1.87 (95% CI: 1.39, 2.34); z = 7.70, p < 0.0001) concentrations. Subgroup analysis showed no effect of study duration on blood glucose (between group difference p = 0.9332) or insulin (between group difference p = 0.2042). Interestingly, the subgroup analysis suggested an effect of study duration on blood triglyceride concentration (between group difference p = 0.037), with fructose beverage consumption for greater than 12 weeks resulting in a significant decrease in blood triglyceride concentration when compared to less than or equal to 12 weeks (Figure 6).


Fructose Beverage Consumption Induces a Metabolic Syndrome Phenotype in the Rat: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Forest plots of the effect of fructose consumption on adult male rodent blood glucose concentration (mean and standard deviation (SD)), split by study duration. The pooled effects estimates are represented by three diamonds; one for studies of 12 weeks or less, one for studies of greater than 12 weeks, and one representing the combined effect. Data are presented as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). p-Values are for the inverse variance random effects models with DerSimonian-Laird estimator for Tau2. Inter-study heterogeneity was tested by Cochran’s Q at a significance of p < 0.10 and quantified by I2.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037561&req=5

nutrients-08-00577-f004: Forest plots of the effect of fructose consumption on adult male rodent blood glucose concentration (mean and standard deviation (SD)), split by study duration. The pooled effects estimates are represented by three diamonds; one for studies of 12 weeks or less, one for studies of greater than 12 weeks, and one representing the combined effect. Data are presented as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). p-Values are for the inverse variance random effects models with DerSimonian-Laird estimator for Tau2. Inter-study heterogeneity was tested by Cochran’s Q at a significance of p < 0.10 and quantified by I2.
Mentions: The effect of fructose consumption on blood glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations is summarized in Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6, respectively. Overall, there was an effect of fructose consumption on blood glucose (Figure 4; SMD, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.36, 1.19); z = 3.64, p = 0.003), insulin (Figure 5; SMD, 2.32 (95% CI: 1.57, 3.07); z = 6.09, p < 0.0001) and triglyceride (Figure 6; SMD, 1.87 (95% CI: 1.39, 2.34); z = 7.70, p < 0.0001) concentrations. Subgroup analysis showed no effect of study duration on blood glucose (between group difference p = 0.9332) or insulin (between group difference p = 0.2042). Interestingly, the subgroup analysis suggested an effect of study duration on blood triglyceride concentration (between group difference p = 0.037), with fructose beverage consumption for greater than 12 weeks resulting in a significant decrease in blood triglyceride concentration when compared to less than or equal to 12 weeks (Figure 6).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

A high intake of refined carbohydrates, particularly the monosaccharide fructose, has been attributed to the growing epidemics of obesity and type-2 diabetes. Animal studies have helped elucidate the metabolic effects of dietary fructose, however, variations in study design make it difficult to draw conclusions. The aim of this study was to review the effects of fructose beverage consumption on body weight, systolic blood pressure and blood glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations in validated rat models. We searched Ovid Embase Classic + EmbaseMedline and Ovid Medline databases and included studies that used adolescent/adult male rats, with fructose beverage consumption for &gt;3 weeks. Data from 26 studies were pooled by an inverse variance weighting method using random effects models, expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, 10%&ndash;21% w/v fructose beverage consumption was associated with increased rodent body weight (SMD, 0.62 (95% CI: 0.18, 1.06)), systolic blood pressure (SMD, 2.94 (95% CI: 2.10, 3.77)) and blood glucose (SMD, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.36, 1.19)), insulin (SMD, 2.32 (95% CI: 1.57, 3.07)) and triglyceride (SMD, 1.87 (95% CI: 1.39, 2.34)) concentrations. Therefore, the consumption of a low concentration fructose beverage is sufficient to cause early signs of the metabolic syndrome in adult rats.

No MeSH data available.