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Fructose Beverage Consumption Induces a Metabolic Syndrome Phenotype in the Rat: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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ABSTRACT

A high intake of refined carbohydrates, particularly the monosaccharide fructose, has been attributed to the growing epidemics of obesity and type-2 diabetes. Animal studies have helped elucidate the metabolic effects of dietary fructose, however, variations in study design make it difficult to draw conclusions. The aim of this study was to review the effects of fructose beverage consumption on body weight, systolic blood pressure and blood glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations in validated rat models. We searched Ovid Embase Classic + EmbaseMedline and Ovid Medline databases and included studies that used adolescent/adult male rats, with fructose beverage consumption for >3 weeks. Data from 26 studies were pooled by an inverse variance weighting method using random effects models, expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, 10%–21% w/v fructose beverage consumption was associated with increased rodent body weight (SMD, 0.62 (95% CI: 0.18, 1.06)), systolic blood pressure (SMD, 2.94 (95% CI: 2.10, 3.77)) and blood glucose (SMD, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.36, 1.19)), insulin (SMD, 2.32 (95% CI: 1.57, 3.07)) and triglyceride (SMD, 1.87 (95% CI: 1.39, 2.34)) concentrations. Therefore, the consumption of a low concentration fructose beverage is sufficient to cause early signs of the metabolic syndrome in adult rats.

No MeSH data available.


Flowchart of studies selected for the meta-analysis.
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nutrients-08-00577-f001: Flowchart of studies selected for the meta-analysis.

Mentions: We searched Ovid Embase Classic + EmbaseMedline and Ovid Medline for articles published within the last 10 years with medical subject headings (MeSH) terms fructose, rat or rats, and weight. Only articles published in English were included in the study. From this, 1317 eligible articles were identified, of which 371 were identified as duplicates. The remaining 946 articles were reviewed for inclusion in the analysis. The exclusion search criteria included: conference abstracts, review articles, studies utilizing pregnant rodents, studies completed on rodents during the lactation or weaning periods, studies conducted during rodent development (i.e., fetuses or offspring less than 8 weeks of age), HFCS feeding, and citations which did not list fructose or body weight in the title or abstract (Figure 1).


Fructose Beverage Consumption Induces a Metabolic Syndrome Phenotype in the Rat: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Flowchart of studies selected for the meta-analysis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037561&req=5

nutrients-08-00577-f001: Flowchart of studies selected for the meta-analysis.
Mentions: We searched Ovid Embase Classic + EmbaseMedline and Ovid Medline for articles published within the last 10 years with medical subject headings (MeSH) terms fructose, rat or rats, and weight. Only articles published in English were included in the study. From this, 1317 eligible articles were identified, of which 371 were identified as duplicates. The remaining 946 articles were reviewed for inclusion in the analysis. The exclusion search criteria included: conference abstracts, review articles, studies utilizing pregnant rodents, studies completed on rodents during the lactation or weaning periods, studies conducted during rodent development (i.e., fetuses or offspring less than 8 weeks of age), HFCS feeding, and citations which did not list fructose or body weight in the title or abstract (Figure 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

A high intake of refined carbohydrates, particularly the monosaccharide fructose, has been attributed to the growing epidemics of obesity and type-2 diabetes. Animal studies have helped elucidate the metabolic effects of dietary fructose, however, variations in study design make it difficult to draw conclusions. The aim of this study was to review the effects of fructose beverage consumption on body weight, systolic blood pressure and blood glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations in validated rat models. We searched Ovid Embase Classic + EmbaseMedline and Ovid Medline databases and included studies that used adolescent/adult male rats, with fructose beverage consumption for >3 weeks. Data from 26 studies were pooled by an inverse variance weighting method using random effects models, expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, 10%–21% w/v fructose beverage consumption was associated with increased rodent body weight (SMD, 0.62 (95% CI: 0.18, 1.06)), systolic blood pressure (SMD, 2.94 (95% CI: 2.10, 3.77)) and blood glucose (SMD, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.36, 1.19)), insulin (SMD, 2.32 (95% CI: 1.57, 3.07)) and triglyceride (SMD, 1.87 (95% CI: 1.39, 2.34)) concentrations. Therefore, the consumption of a low concentration fructose beverage is sufficient to cause early signs of the metabolic syndrome in adult rats.

No MeSH data available.