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Maternal Dietary Patterns and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

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ABSTRACT

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and long term health issues for both the mother and offspring. Previous research has demonstrated associations between maternal diet and GDM development, but evidence in Asian populations is limited. The objective of our study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of GDM in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort. Maternal diet was ascertained using 24-h dietary recalls from participants in the Growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes (GUSTO) study—a prospective mother-offspring cohort, and GDM was diagnosed according to 1999 World Health Organisation guidelines. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis, and multivariate regression analyses performed to assess the association with GDM. Of 909 participants, 17.6% were diagnosed with GDM. Three dietary patterns were identified: a vegetable-fruit-rice-based-diet, a seafood-noodle-based-diet and a pasta-cheese-processed-meat-diet. After adjusting for confounding variables, the seafood-noodle-based-diet was associated with a lower likelihood of GDM (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)) = 0.74 (0.59, 0.93). The dietary pattern found to be associated with GDM in our study was substantially different to those reported previously in Western populations.

No MeSH data available.


Flowchart showing selection of participants included in this analysis from GUSTO study (Growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes), Singapore.
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nutrients-08-00574-f001: Flowchart showing selection of participants included in this analysis from GUSTO study (Growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes), Singapore.

Mentions: Of the 909 women included in our analyses (Figure 1), 17.6% (n = 160) were diagnosed with GDM at the time of OGTT testing (26–28 weeks’ gestation), according to the 1999 World Health Organisation (WHO) diagnostic criteria (WHO, 1999). The mean age of participants was 31 years (±5 years), with a mean BMI of 26 kg/m2 (±4.3 kg/m2). Participants in our study were predominantly of Chinese ethnicity (56.7%), followed by Malay, (25.7%) and Indian ethnicity (17.6%). Close to half of the participants (n = 380, or 41.8%) were iparous at recruitment. Women diagnosed with GDM had a significantly higher mean age and BMI when compared with those not diagnosed with GDM. They were also more likely to have completed university education, and reported a higher monthly household income (Table 1).


Maternal Dietary Patterns and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study
Flowchart showing selection of participants included in this analysis from GUSTO study (Growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes), Singapore.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037559&req=5

nutrients-08-00574-f001: Flowchart showing selection of participants included in this analysis from GUSTO study (Growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes), Singapore.
Mentions: Of the 909 women included in our analyses (Figure 1), 17.6% (n = 160) were diagnosed with GDM at the time of OGTT testing (26–28 weeks’ gestation), according to the 1999 World Health Organisation (WHO) diagnostic criteria (WHO, 1999). The mean age of participants was 31 years (±5 years), with a mean BMI of 26 kg/m2 (±4.3 kg/m2). Participants in our study were predominantly of Chinese ethnicity (56.7%), followed by Malay, (25.7%) and Indian ethnicity (17.6%). Close to half of the participants (n = 380, or 41.8%) were iparous at recruitment. Women diagnosed with GDM had a significantly higher mean age and BMI when compared with those not diagnosed with GDM. They were also more likely to have completed university education, and reported a higher monthly household income (Table 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and long term health issues for both the mother and offspring. Previous research has demonstrated associations between maternal diet and GDM development, but evidence in Asian populations is limited. The objective of our study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of GDM in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort. Maternal diet was ascertained using 24-h dietary recalls from participants in the Growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes (GUSTO) study—a prospective mother-offspring cohort, and GDM was diagnosed according to 1999 World Health Organisation guidelines. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis, and multivariate regression analyses performed to assess the association with GDM. Of 909 participants, 17.6% were diagnosed with GDM. Three dietary patterns were identified: a vegetable-fruit-rice-based-diet, a seafood-noodle-based-diet and a pasta-cheese-processed-meat-diet. After adjusting for confounding variables, the seafood-noodle-based-diet was associated with a lower likelihood of GDM (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)) = 0.74 (0.59, 0.93). The dietary pattern found to be associated with GDM in our study was substantially different to those reported previously in Western populations.

No MeSH data available.