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The mTORC1-Signaling Pathway and Hepatic Polyribosome Profile Are Enhanced after the Recovery of a Protein Restricted Diet by a Combination of Soy or Black Bean with Corn Protein

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Between 6% and 11% of the world’s population suffers from malnutrition or undernutrition associated with poverty, aging or long-term hospitalization. The present work examined the effect of different types of proteins on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTORC1)-signaling pathway in: (1) healthy; and (2) protein restricted rats. (1) In total, 200 rats were divided into eight groups and fed one of the following diets: 20% casein (C), soy (S), black bean (B), B + Corn (BCr), Pea (P), spirulina (Sp), sesame (Se) or Corn (Cr). Rats fed C or BCr had the highest body weight gain; rats fed BCr had the highest pS6K1/S6K1 ratio; rats fed B, BCr or P had the highest eIF4G expression; (2) In total, 84 rats were fed 0.5% C for 21 day and protein rehabilitated with different proteins. The S, soy + Corn (SCr) and BCr groups had the highest body weight gain. Rats fed SCr and BCr had the highest eIF4G expression and liver polysome formation. These findings suggest that the quality of the dietary proteins modulate the mTORC1-signaling pathway. In conclusion, the combination of BCr or SCr are the best proteins for dietary protein rehabilitation due to the significant increase in body weight, activation of the mTORC1-signaling pathway in liver and muscle, and liver polysome formation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Serum Homocysteine (Hcy) concentration in healthy rats fed different types of dietary protein: (A) Fasting serum Hcy concentration and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 min of feeding casein (C), soy protein (S), black bean (B), black bean + corn (BCr), pea (P), spirulina (SP), sesame (Se) or corn (Cr); and (B) values are means ± SEM, n = 5. Different letter superscript indicates significant differences among rows, p < 0.05, a > b > c.
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nutrients-08-00573-f001: Serum Homocysteine (Hcy) concentration in healthy rats fed different types of dietary protein: (A) Fasting serum Hcy concentration and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 min of feeding casein (C), soy protein (S), black bean (B), black bean + corn (BCr), pea (P), spirulina (SP), sesame (Se) or corn (Cr); and (B) values are means ± SEM, n = 5. Different letter superscript indicates significant differences among rows, p < 0.05, a > b > c.

Mentions: All serum biochemical parameters after 1 h refeeding in all groups were within the normal range. However, there was a significant difference in several parameters in some groups (Table 2). The more relevant differences were observed in the groups fed P, Se or Cr with the highest postprandial serum glucose concentrations (p < 0.05). The groups fed C or Se had the highest (p < 0.05) postprandial insulin concentrations. The highest glucagon concentration was observed in the B group (p < 0.05). The B group had the lowest insulin/glucagon ratio, whereas the C and Se groups had the highest insulin/glucagon ratio (p < 0.05). Since Sp contains nucleic acid and the biochemical degradation ends by producing uric acid, we determined serum uric acid concentration in rats fed Sp resulting in normal values (81.3 ± 6.0 µmol/L). Previous studies have demonstrated that the consumption of soy protein reduces serum Hcy concentration [35] due to that the limiting amino acid in soy is methionine, thus we assessed whether other different types of dietary vegetable proteins used in the present study regulates serum homocysteine concentration. Interestingly, rats fed with all different types of vegetable protein had significantly lower serum Hcy concentration at 90 and 120 min than the C group. Hcy concentration was significantly higher in fasting rats fed C with respect to all groups with exception of P group. The average fasting serum Hcy in rats fed vegetable protein was 6.83 ± 0.43 µmol/L, whereas, in the C group, it was 12.6 ± 1.5 µmol/L. After two hours of feeding, rats fed vegetable proteins, had average serum Hcy concentration of 8.9 ± 0.5, whereas the C group rats had 19.2 ± 2.0 µmol/L (Figure 1A), a value that is considered as hyperhomocysteinemia [36].


The mTORC1-Signaling Pathway and Hepatic Polyribosome Profile Are Enhanced after the Recovery of a Protein Restricted Diet by a Combination of Soy or Black Bean with Corn Protein
Serum Homocysteine (Hcy) concentration in healthy rats fed different types of dietary protein: (A) Fasting serum Hcy concentration and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 min of feeding casein (C), soy protein (S), black bean (B), black bean + corn (BCr), pea (P), spirulina (SP), sesame (Se) or corn (Cr); and (B) values are means ± SEM, n = 5. Different letter superscript indicates significant differences among rows, p < 0.05, a > b > c.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037558&req=5

nutrients-08-00573-f001: Serum Homocysteine (Hcy) concentration in healthy rats fed different types of dietary protein: (A) Fasting serum Hcy concentration and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 min of feeding casein (C), soy protein (S), black bean (B), black bean + corn (BCr), pea (P), spirulina (SP), sesame (Se) or corn (Cr); and (B) values are means ± SEM, n = 5. Different letter superscript indicates significant differences among rows, p < 0.05, a > b > c.
Mentions: All serum biochemical parameters after 1 h refeeding in all groups were within the normal range. However, there was a significant difference in several parameters in some groups (Table 2). The more relevant differences were observed in the groups fed P, Se or Cr with the highest postprandial serum glucose concentrations (p < 0.05). The groups fed C or Se had the highest (p < 0.05) postprandial insulin concentrations. The highest glucagon concentration was observed in the B group (p < 0.05). The B group had the lowest insulin/glucagon ratio, whereas the C and Se groups had the highest insulin/glucagon ratio (p < 0.05). Since Sp contains nucleic acid and the biochemical degradation ends by producing uric acid, we determined serum uric acid concentration in rats fed Sp resulting in normal values (81.3 ± 6.0 µmol/L). Previous studies have demonstrated that the consumption of soy protein reduces serum Hcy concentration [35] due to that the limiting amino acid in soy is methionine, thus we assessed whether other different types of dietary vegetable proteins used in the present study regulates serum homocysteine concentration. Interestingly, rats fed with all different types of vegetable protein had significantly lower serum Hcy concentration at 90 and 120 min than the C group. Hcy concentration was significantly higher in fasting rats fed C with respect to all groups with exception of P group. The average fasting serum Hcy in rats fed vegetable protein was 6.83 ± 0.43 µmol/L, whereas, in the C group, it was 12.6 ± 1.5 µmol/L. After two hours of feeding, rats fed vegetable proteins, had average serum Hcy concentration of 8.9 ± 0.5, whereas the C group rats had 19.2 ± 2.0 µmol/L (Figure 1A), a value that is considered as hyperhomocysteinemia [36].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Between 6% and 11% of the world&rsquo;s population suffers from malnutrition or undernutrition associated with poverty, aging or long-term hospitalization. The present work examined the effect of different types of proteins on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTORC1)-signaling pathway in: (1) healthy; and (2) protein restricted rats. (1) In total, 200 rats were divided into eight groups and fed one of the following diets: 20% casein (C), soy (S), black bean (B), B + Corn (BCr), Pea (P), spirulina (Sp), sesame (Se) or Corn (Cr). Rats fed C or BCr had the highest body weight gain; rats fed BCr had the highest pS6K1/S6K1 ratio; rats fed B, BCr or P had the highest eIF4G expression; (2) In total, 84 rats were fed 0.5% C for 21 day and protein rehabilitated with different proteins. The S, soy + Corn (SCr) and BCr groups had the highest body weight gain. Rats fed SCr and BCr had the highest eIF4G expression and liver polysome formation. These findings suggest that the quality of the dietary proteins modulate the mTORC1-signaling pathway. In conclusion, the combination of BCr or SCr are the best proteins for dietary protein rehabilitation due to the significant increase in body weight, activation of the mTORC1-signaling pathway in liver and muscle, and liver polysome formation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus