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Antioxidant-Rich Extract from Plantaginis Semen Ameliorates Diabetic Retinal Injury in a Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Model

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Plantaginis semen, the dried ripe seed of Plantago asiatica L. or Plantago depressa Willd. (Plantaginaceae), has been traditionally used to treat blurred vision in Asia. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of plantaginis semen ethanol extract (PSEE) on the amelioration of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. PSEE has abundant polyphenols with strong antioxidant activity. PSEE (100, 200 or 300 mg/kg) was oral administrated to the diabetic rats once daily consecutively for 8 weeks. Oral administration of PSEE resulted in significant reduction of hyperglycemia, the diameter of the retinal vessels, and retinal vascular permeability and leukostasis in diabetic rats. In addition, PSEE administration increased the activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH) level in diabetic retinae. PSEE treatment inhibited the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the phosphorylation of Akt without altering the Akt protein expression in diabetic retinae. PSEE not only down-regulated the gene expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but also reduced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in diabetic retinae. Moreover, PSEE reduced the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and corrected imbalance between histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT) activities in diabetic retinae. In conclusion, phenolic antioxidants extract from plantaginis semen has potential benefits in the prevention and/or progression of DR.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT) in retinas of rats receiving 8-week treatment. STZ-diabetic rats (STZ) were dosed by oral gavage once per day for 8 weeks with PSEE at dosages of 100 (PSEE 100), 200 (PSEE 200), or 300 mg/kg (PSEE 300). Normal or STZ-diabetic rats receiving vehicle treatment were given the same volume of vehicle (distilled water) used to prepare the test medication solutions. Results in each column are mean ± SD from ten rats per group. ap < 0.05 and bp < 0.01 compared to vehicle-treated normal rats, respectively. cp < 0.05 and dp < 0.01 compared to the values of vehicle-treated STZ-diabetic rats, respectively.
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nutrients-08-00572-f006: Activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT) in retinas of rats receiving 8-week treatment. STZ-diabetic rats (STZ) were dosed by oral gavage once per day for 8 weeks with PSEE at dosages of 100 (PSEE 100), 200 (PSEE 200), or 300 mg/kg (PSEE 300). Normal or STZ-diabetic rats receiving vehicle treatment were given the same volume of vehicle (distilled water) used to prepare the test medication solutions. Results in each column are mean ± SD from ten rats per group. ap < 0.05 and bp < 0.01 compared to vehicle-treated normal rats, respectively. cp < 0.05 and dp < 0.01 compared to the values of vehicle-treated STZ-diabetic rats, respectively.

Mentions: The activities of NF-κB and HDAC in the retinas of STZ-diabetic rats were 2.4- and 3.6-fold higher than those of the normal group, respectively (Figure 6). These STZ-induced up-regulations in activities of NF-κB and HDAC were lowered in the retina after treatment with 300 mg/kg/day PSEE, at 58.4% and 60.8% the levels seen in the vehicle-treated STZ-diabetic rats, respectively (Figure 6).


Antioxidant-Rich Extract from Plantaginis Semen Ameliorates Diabetic Retinal Injury in a Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Model
Activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT) in retinas of rats receiving 8-week treatment. STZ-diabetic rats (STZ) were dosed by oral gavage once per day for 8 weeks with PSEE at dosages of 100 (PSEE 100), 200 (PSEE 200), or 300 mg/kg (PSEE 300). Normal or STZ-diabetic rats receiving vehicle treatment were given the same volume of vehicle (distilled water) used to prepare the test medication solutions. Results in each column are mean ± SD from ten rats per group. ap < 0.05 and bp < 0.01 compared to vehicle-treated normal rats, respectively. cp < 0.05 and dp < 0.01 compared to the values of vehicle-treated STZ-diabetic rats, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037557&req=5

nutrients-08-00572-f006: Activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT) in retinas of rats receiving 8-week treatment. STZ-diabetic rats (STZ) were dosed by oral gavage once per day for 8 weeks with PSEE at dosages of 100 (PSEE 100), 200 (PSEE 200), or 300 mg/kg (PSEE 300). Normal or STZ-diabetic rats receiving vehicle treatment were given the same volume of vehicle (distilled water) used to prepare the test medication solutions. Results in each column are mean ± SD from ten rats per group. ap < 0.05 and bp < 0.01 compared to vehicle-treated normal rats, respectively. cp < 0.05 and dp < 0.01 compared to the values of vehicle-treated STZ-diabetic rats, respectively.
Mentions: The activities of NF-κB and HDAC in the retinas of STZ-diabetic rats were 2.4- and 3.6-fold higher than those of the normal group, respectively (Figure 6). These STZ-induced up-regulations in activities of NF-κB and HDAC were lowered in the retina after treatment with 300 mg/kg/day PSEE, at 58.4% and 60.8% the levels seen in the vehicle-treated STZ-diabetic rats, respectively (Figure 6).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Plantaginis semen, the dried ripe seed of Plantago asiatica L. or Plantago depressa Willd. (Plantaginaceae), has been traditionally used to treat blurred vision in Asia. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of plantaginis semen ethanol extract (PSEE) on the amelioration of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. PSEE has abundant polyphenols with strong antioxidant activity. PSEE (100, 200 or 300 mg/kg) was oral administrated to the diabetic rats once daily consecutively for 8 weeks. Oral administration of PSEE resulted in significant reduction of hyperglycemia, the diameter of the retinal vessels, and retinal vascular permeability and leukostasis in diabetic rats. In addition, PSEE administration increased the activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH) level in diabetic retinae. PSEE treatment inhibited the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1&alpha; (HIF-1&alpha;) and the phosphorylation of Akt without altering the Akt protein expression in diabetic retinae. PSEE not only down-regulated the gene expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1&alpha; (TNF-&alpha;) and interleukin-1&beta; (IL-1&beta;), but also reduced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in diabetic retinae. Moreover, PSEE reduced the nuclear factor-&kappa;B (NF-&kappa;B) activation and corrected imbalance between histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT) activities in diabetic retinae. In conclusion, phenolic antioxidants extract from plantaginis semen has potential benefits in the prevention and/or progression of DR.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus