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Antioxidant-Rich Extract from Plantaginis Semen Ameliorates Diabetic Retinal Injury in a Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Model

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Plantaginis semen, the dried ripe seed of Plantago asiatica L. or Plantago depressa Willd. (Plantaginaceae), has been traditionally used to treat blurred vision in Asia. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of plantaginis semen ethanol extract (PSEE) on the amelioration of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. PSEE has abundant polyphenols with strong antioxidant activity. PSEE (100, 200 or 300 mg/kg) was oral administrated to the diabetic rats once daily consecutively for 8 weeks. Oral administration of PSEE resulted in significant reduction of hyperglycemia, the diameter of the retinal vessels, and retinal vascular permeability and leukostasis in diabetic rats. In addition, PSEE administration increased the activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH) level in diabetic retinae. PSEE treatment inhibited the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the phosphorylation of Akt without altering the Akt protein expression in diabetic retinae. PSEE not only down-regulated the gene expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but also reduced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in diabetic retinae. Moreover, PSEE reduced the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and corrected imbalance between histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT) activities in diabetic retinae. In conclusion, phenolic antioxidants extract from plantaginis semen has potential benefits in the prevention and/or progression of DR.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Fundus photographs (A) and retinal vascular diameters (B) in rats receiving 8-week treatments. STZ-diabetic rats (STZ) were dosed by oral gavage once per day for 8 weeks with plantaginis semen ethanol extract (PSEE) at dosages of 100 (PSEE 100), 200 (PSEE 200), or 300 mg/kg (PSEE 300). Normal or STZ-diabetic rats receiving vehicle treatment were given the same volume of vehicle (distilled water) used to prepare the test medication solutions. Fundus photograph from normal rat not showed any vascular dysfunction. Severse vascular leakage and dilatation vessels have been shown in fundus image from STZ-diabetic rats. Fundus photographs of PSEE-treated STZ-diabetic rats showed lesser dilated vessels. Values (mean ± SD) were obtained for each group of ten animals. ap < 0.05 and bp < 0.01 compared to the values of vehicle-treated normal rats, respectively. cp < 0.05 and dp < 0.01 compared to the values of vehicle-treated STZ-diabetic rats, respectively.
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nutrients-08-00572-f001: Fundus photographs (A) and retinal vascular diameters (B) in rats receiving 8-week treatments. STZ-diabetic rats (STZ) were dosed by oral gavage once per day for 8 weeks with plantaginis semen ethanol extract (PSEE) at dosages of 100 (PSEE 100), 200 (PSEE 200), or 300 mg/kg (PSEE 300). Normal or STZ-diabetic rats receiving vehicle treatment were given the same volume of vehicle (distilled water) used to prepare the test medication solutions. Fundus photograph from normal rat not showed any vascular dysfunction. Severse vascular leakage and dilatation vessels have been shown in fundus image from STZ-diabetic rats. Fundus photographs of PSEE-treated STZ-diabetic rats showed lesser dilated vessels. Values (mean ± SD) were obtained for each group of ten animals. ap < 0.05 and bp < 0.01 compared to the values of vehicle-treated normal rats, respectively. cp < 0.05 and dp < 0.01 compared to the values of vehicle-treated STZ-diabetic rats, respectively.

Mentions: Fundus photograph from normal rat was not showing any abnormal in retinal vasculature and the optic nerve head (Figure 1) However, vascular leakage with accompanying dilatation vessels were shown on fundus photographs from STZ-diabetic rats (Figure 1). Less vascular leakage was present from the optic disc of STZ-diabetic rats receiving 300 mg/kg/day PSEE treatment (Figure 1). In addition, the retinal arterioles and venules became mildly dilated in PSEE (300 mg/kg/day)-treated STZ-diabetic rats (Figure 1).


Antioxidant-Rich Extract from Plantaginis Semen Ameliorates Diabetic Retinal Injury in a Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Model
Fundus photographs (A) and retinal vascular diameters (B) in rats receiving 8-week treatments. STZ-diabetic rats (STZ) were dosed by oral gavage once per day for 8 weeks with plantaginis semen ethanol extract (PSEE) at dosages of 100 (PSEE 100), 200 (PSEE 200), or 300 mg/kg (PSEE 300). Normal or STZ-diabetic rats receiving vehicle treatment were given the same volume of vehicle (distilled water) used to prepare the test medication solutions. Fundus photograph from normal rat not showed any vascular dysfunction. Severse vascular leakage and dilatation vessels have been shown in fundus image from STZ-diabetic rats. Fundus photographs of PSEE-treated STZ-diabetic rats showed lesser dilated vessels. Values (mean ± SD) were obtained for each group of ten animals. ap < 0.05 and bp < 0.01 compared to the values of vehicle-treated normal rats, respectively. cp < 0.05 and dp < 0.01 compared to the values of vehicle-treated STZ-diabetic rats, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037557&req=5

nutrients-08-00572-f001: Fundus photographs (A) and retinal vascular diameters (B) in rats receiving 8-week treatments. STZ-diabetic rats (STZ) were dosed by oral gavage once per day for 8 weeks with plantaginis semen ethanol extract (PSEE) at dosages of 100 (PSEE 100), 200 (PSEE 200), or 300 mg/kg (PSEE 300). Normal or STZ-diabetic rats receiving vehicle treatment were given the same volume of vehicle (distilled water) used to prepare the test medication solutions. Fundus photograph from normal rat not showed any vascular dysfunction. Severse vascular leakage and dilatation vessels have been shown in fundus image from STZ-diabetic rats. Fundus photographs of PSEE-treated STZ-diabetic rats showed lesser dilated vessels. Values (mean ± SD) were obtained for each group of ten animals. ap < 0.05 and bp < 0.01 compared to the values of vehicle-treated normal rats, respectively. cp < 0.05 and dp < 0.01 compared to the values of vehicle-treated STZ-diabetic rats, respectively.
Mentions: Fundus photograph from normal rat was not showing any abnormal in retinal vasculature and the optic nerve head (Figure 1) However, vascular leakage with accompanying dilatation vessels were shown on fundus photographs from STZ-diabetic rats (Figure 1). Less vascular leakage was present from the optic disc of STZ-diabetic rats receiving 300 mg/kg/day PSEE treatment (Figure 1). In addition, the retinal arterioles and venules became mildly dilated in PSEE (300 mg/kg/day)-treated STZ-diabetic rats (Figure 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Plantaginis semen, the dried ripe seed of Plantago asiatica L. or Plantago depressa Willd. (Plantaginaceae), has been traditionally used to treat blurred vision in Asia. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of plantaginis semen ethanol extract (PSEE) on the amelioration of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. PSEE has abundant polyphenols with strong antioxidant activity. PSEE (100, 200 or 300 mg/kg) was oral administrated to the diabetic rats once daily consecutively for 8 weeks. Oral administration of PSEE resulted in significant reduction of hyperglycemia, the diameter of the retinal vessels, and retinal vascular permeability and leukostasis in diabetic rats. In addition, PSEE administration increased the activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH) level in diabetic retinae. PSEE treatment inhibited the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1&alpha; (HIF-1&alpha;) and the phosphorylation of Akt without altering the Akt protein expression in diabetic retinae. PSEE not only down-regulated the gene expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1&alpha; (TNF-&alpha;) and interleukin-1&beta; (IL-1&beta;), but also reduced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in diabetic retinae. Moreover, PSEE reduced the nuclear factor-&kappa;B (NF-&kappa;B) activation and corrected imbalance between histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT) activities in diabetic retinae. In conclusion, phenolic antioxidants extract from plantaginis semen has potential benefits in the prevention and/or progression of DR.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus