Limits...
Food Matrix Effects of Polyphenol Bioaccessibility from Almond Skin during Simulated Human Digestion

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The goal of the present study was to quantify the rate and extent of polyphenols released in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) from natural (NS) and blanched (BS) almond skins. A dynamic gastric model of digestion which provides a realistic simulation of the human stomach was used. In order to establish the effect of a food matrix on polyphenols bioaccessibility, NS and BS were either digested in water (WT) or incorporated into home-made biscuits (HB), crisp-bread (CB) and full-fat milk (FM). Phenolic acids were the most bioaccessible class (68.5% release from NS and 64.7% from BS). WT increased the release of flavan-3-ols (p < 0.05) and flavonols (p < 0.05) from NS after gastric plus duodenal digestion, whereas CB and HB were better vehicles for BS. FM lowered the % recovery of polyphenols, the free total phenols and the antioxidant status in the digestion medium, indicating that phenolic compounds could bind protein present in the food matrix. The release of bioactives from almond skins could explain the beneficial effects associated with almond consumption.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Release of flavonoids and phenolic acids from natural almond skin (NS) and blanched almond skin (BS) in water (A); home-made biscuits (B); crisp-bread (C) and full-fat milk (D). Values are given as % phenolic acids, flavanols, flavan-3-ols and flavanones released from the initial amounts presents in the meals (Table 2) during in vitro gastric (G) and gastric + duodenal (G + D) digestion. Values represent averages (±SD) of triplicate measurements. Matching symbols across the four panels indicate significantly different (p < 0.01) samples. † Phenolic acid release in BS-G + D significantly different between A, B and D; †† Flavonols release in BS-G + D significantly different between A, C and D; ** Flavonols release in BS-G + D significantly different between A and C; ¶ Flavonols release in BS-G + D significantly different between A and B; ‡‡ Flavan-3-ols release in BS-G significantly different between A, B and C; & Flavanones release in BS-G significantly different between A and D; ¥ Flavanones release in BS-G significantly different between A and B; ѫ: Flavanones release in NS-G significantly different between A and D; Ω Flavanones release in NS-G significantly different between A and B; ‡ Phenolic acid release in BS-G + D significantly different between B and C; * Flavan-3-ols release in BS-G + D significantly different between B and C; ¥¥ Flavanones release in BS-G + D significantly different between B, C and D; § Phenolic acid release in NS-G + D significantly different between C and D; // Flavonols release in BS-G significantly different between C and D; §§ Flavan-3-ols release in BS-G significantly different between C and D; / Flavan-3-ols release in BS-G + D significantly different between C and D; ¶¶ Flavan-3-ols release in NS-G+D significantly different between C and D.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037553&req=5

nutrients-08-00568-f001: Release of flavonoids and phenolic acids from natural almond skin (NS) and blanched almond skin (BS) in water (A); home-made biscuits (B); crisp-bread (C) and full-fat milk (D). Values are given as % phenolic acids, flavanols, flavan-3-ols and flavanones released from the initial amounts presents in the meals (Table 2) during in vitro gastric (G) and gastric + duodenal (G + D) digestion. Values represent averages (±SD) of triplicate measurements. Matching symbols across the four panels indicate significantly different (p < 0.01) samples. † Phenolic acid release in BS-G + D significantly different between A, B and D; †† Flavonols release in BS-G + D significantly different between A, C and D; ** Flavonols release in BS-G + D significantly different between A and C; ¶ Flavonols release in BS-G + D significantly different between A and B; ‡‡ Flavan-3-ols release in BS-G significantly different between A, B and C; & Flavanones release in BS-G significantly different between A and D; ¥ Flavanones release in BS-G significantly different between A and B; ѫ: Flavanones release in NS-G significantly different between A and D; Ω Flavanones release in NS-G significantly different between A and B; ‡ Phenolic acid release in BS-G + D significantly different between B and C; * Flavan-3-ols release in BS-G + D significantly different between B and C; ¥¥ Flavanones release in BS-G + D significantly different between B, C and D; § Phenolic acid release in NS-G + D significantly different between C and D; // Flavonols release in BS-G significantly different between C and D; §§ Flavan-3-ols release in BS-G significantly different between C and D; / Flavan-3-ols release in BS-G + D significantly different between C and D; ¶¶ Flavan-3-ols release in NS-G+D significantly different between C and D.

Mentions: The release of polyphenols as a percentage of the original amount present in each meal (Table 2) after simulated gastric plus duodenal digestion is reported in Figure 1. No polyphenols were detected in blank samples of each meal not containing almond skin. As expected, a high release of bioactive compounds was observed from both NS and BS in WT (Figure 1A).


Food Matrix Effects of Polyphenol Bioaccessibility from Almond Skin during Simulated Human Digestion
Release of flavonoids and phenolic acids from natural almond skin (NS) and blanched almond skin (BS) in water (A); home-made biscuits (B); crisp-bread (C) and full-fat milk (D). Values are given as % phenolic acids, flavanols, flavan-3-ols and flavanones released from the initial amounts presents in the meals (Table 2) during in vitro gastric (G) and gastric + duodenal (G + D) digestion. Values represent averages (±SD) of triplicate measurements. Matching symbols across the four panels indicate significantly different (p < 0.01) samples. † Phenolic acid release in BS-G + D significantly different between A, B and D; †† Flavonols release in BS-G + D significantly different between A, C and D; ** Flavonols release in BS-G + D significantly different between A and C; ¶ Flavonols release in BS-G + D significantly different between A and B; ‡‡ Flavan-3-ols release in BS-G significantly different between A, B and C; & Flavanones release in BS-G significantly different between A and D; ¥ Flavanones release in BS-G significantly different between A and B; ѫ: Flavanones release in NS-G significantly different between A and D; Ω Flavanones release in NS-G significantly different between A and B; ‡ Phenolic acid release in BS-G + D significantly different between B and C; * Flavan-3-ols release in BS-G + D significantly different between B and C; ¥¥ Flavanones release in BS-G + D significantly different between B, C and D; § Phenolic acid release in NS-G + D significantly different between C and D; // Flavonols release in BS-G significantly different between C and D; §§ Flavan-3-ols release in BS-G significantly different between C and D; / Flavan-3-ols release in BS-G + D significantly different between C and D; ¶¶ Flavan-3-ols release in NS-G+D significantly different between C and D.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037553&req=5

nutrients-08-00568-f001: Release of flavonoids and phenolic acids from natural almond skin (NS) and blanched almond skin (BS) in water (A); home-made biscuits (B); crisp-bread (C) and full-fat milk (D). Values are given as % phenolic acids, flavanols, flavan-3-ols and flavanones released from the initial amounts presents in the meals (Table 2) during in vitro gastric (G) and gastric + duodenal (G + D) digestion. Values represent averages (±SD) of triplicate measurements. Matching symbols across the four panels indicate significantly different (p < 0.01) samples. † Phenolic acid release in BS-G + D significantly different between A, B and D; †† Flavonols release in BS-G + D significantly different between A, C and D; ** Flavonols release in BS-G + D significantly different between A and C; ¶ Flavonols release in BS-G + D significantly different between A and B; ‡‡ Flavan-3-ols release in BS-G significantly different between A, B and C; & Flavanones release in BS-G significantly different between A and D; ¥ Flavanones release in BS-G significantly different between A and B; ѫ: Flavanones release in NS-G significantly different between A and D; Ω Flavanones release in NS-G significantly different between A and B; ‡ Phenolic acid release in BS-G + D significantly different between B and C; * Flavan-3-ols release in BS-G + D significantly different between B and C; ¥¥ Flavanones release in BS-G + D significantly different between B, C and D; § Phenolic acid release in NS-G + D significantly different between C and D; // Flavonols release in BS-G significantly different between C and D; §§ Flavan-3-ols release in BS-G significantly different between C and D; / Flavan-3-ols release in BS-G + D significantly different between C and D; ¶¶ Flavan-3-ols release in NS-G+D significantly different between C and D.
Mentions: The release of polyphenols as a percentage of the original amount present in each meal (Table 2) after simulated gastric plus duodenal digestion is reported in Figure 1. No polyphenols were detected in blank samples of each meal not containing almond skin. As expected, a high release of bioactive compounds was observed from both NS and BS in WT (Figure 1A).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The goal of the present study was to quantify the rate and extent of polyphenols released in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) from natural (NS) and blanched (BS) almond skins. A dynamic gastric model of digestion which provides a realistic simulation of the human stomach was used. In order to establish the effect of a food matrix on polyphenols bioaccessibility, NS and BS were either digested in water (WT) or incorporated into home-made biscuits (HB), crisp-bread (CB) and full-fat milk (FM). Phenolic acids were the most bioaccessible class (68.5% release from NS and 64.7% from BS). WT increased the release of flavan-3-ols (p &lt; 0.05) and flavonols (p &lt; 0.05) from NS after gastric plus duodenal digestion, whereas CB and HB were better vehicles for BS. FM lowered the % recovery of polyphenols, the free total phenols and the antioxidant status in the digestion medium, indicating that phenolic compounds could bind protein present in the food matrix. The release of bioactives from almond skins could explain the beneficial effects associated with almond consumption.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus