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Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4 – 13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study

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ABSTRACT

This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9–13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4–8 years old (92%–98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life.

No MeSH data available.


Total daily water intake (mL/day) from all sources by gender, in a national sample of 4–13-year-old children. * Statistical comparisons are made between genders within the 4–8 years age group, derived from independent samples t-test, results are significant at p < 0.05. ‡ Statistical comparisons are made between genders within the 9–13 years age group, derived from independent samples t-test, results are significant at p < 0.05. † Other category includes: vegetable juices, sports and energy drinks, and alcoholic beverages.
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nutrients-08-00554-f002: Total daily water intake (mL/day) from all sources by gender, in a national sample of 4–13-year-old children. * Statistical comparisons are made between genders within the 4–8 years age group, derived from independent samples t-test, results are significant at p < 0.05. ‡ Statistical comparisons are made between genders within the 9–13 years age group, derived from independent samples t-test, results are significant at p < 0.05. † Other category includes: vegetable juices, sports and energy drinks, and alcoholic beverages.

Mentions: Gender differentials in water intakes from foods and from different beverage sources are shown in Figure 2. For the 4–8-year-old children, water intakes from solid foods and from hot beverages (tea/coffee) were found to be significantly higher amongst girls compared to boys. On the other hand, 4–8-year-old boys had significantly higher intakes of water from sodas and fruit drinks (bottled fruit juices with sugar) compared to girls of the same age. Among 9–13-year-old children, significantly higher water intakes from sodas, fruit drinks, and fruit juices (fresh and no sugar added) were noted in boys compared to girls, whereas significantly higher water intakes from milk and milk alternatives were observed in girls compared to boys.


Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4 – 13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study
Total daily water intake (mL/day) from all sources by gender, in a national sample of 4–13-year-old children. * Statistical comparisons are made between genders within the 4–8 years age group, derived from independent samples t-test, results are significant at p < 0.05. ‡ Statistical comparisons are made between genders within the 9–13 years age group, derived from independent samples t-test, results are significant at p < 0.05. † Other category includes: vegetable juices, sports and energy drinks, and alcoholic beverages.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037539&req=5

nutrients-08-00554-f002: Total daily water intake (mL/day) from all sources by gender, in a national sample of 4–13-year-old children. * Statistical comparisons are made between genders within the 4–8 years age group, derived from independent samples t-test, results are significant at p < 0.05. ‡ Statistical comparisons are made between genders within the 9–13 years age group, derived from independent samples t-test, results are significant at p < 0.05. † Other category includes: vegetable juices, sports and energy drinks, and alcoholic beverages.
Mentions: Gender differentials in water intakes from foods and from different beverage sources are shown in Figure 2. For the 4–8-year-old children, water intakes from solid foods and from hot beverages (tea/coffee) were found to be significantly higher amongst girls compared to boys. On the other hand, 4–8-year-old boys had significantly higher intakes of water from sodas and fruit drinks (bottled fruit juices with sugar) compared to girls of the same age. Among 9–13-year-old children, significantly higher water intakes from sodas, fruit drinks, and fruit juices (fresh and no sugar added) were noted in boys compared to girls, whereas significantly higher water intakes from milk and milk alternatives were observed in girls compared to boys.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9&ndash;13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4&ndash;8 years old (92%&ndash;98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life.

No MeSH data available.