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Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4 – 13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study

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ABSTRACT

This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9–13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4–8 years old (92%–98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life.

No MeSH data available.


Shortfalls in total water intakes amongst 4–13-year-old Lebanese children as compared to the IOM adequate intake (AI) and proportion of children meeting the age and gender-specific AIs. Total daily water intake from all foods and beverages (consumed) by age group and gender compared to Institute of Medicine Recommendations (IOM) (shortfall). Proportions of children meeting and not meeting needs compared to IOM are displayed in the corresponding pie charts.
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nutrients-08-00554-f001: Shortfalls in total water intakes amongst 4–13-year-old Lebanese children as compared to the IOM adequate intake (AI) and proportion of children meeting the age and gender-specific AIs. Total daily water intake from all foods and beverages (consumed) by age group and gender compared to Institute of Medicine Recommendations (IOM) (shortfall). Proportions of children meeting and not meeting needs compared to IOM are displayed in the corresponding pie charts.

Mentions: Total daily water intakes amongst 4–13-year-old Lebanese children were compared to the age and gender-specific water intake recommendations of the IOM (Figure 1). Compared to the AI values, the shortfall in water intake was observed to be higher amongst 9–13-year-old children (592 mL/day in boys and 533 mL/day in girls) compared to their younger counterparts (99 mL/day). Overall, only 15% (n = 114) of the study sample met the recommendations for daily TWI, among whom the mean TWI was estimated at 2047 mL/day (SE = 32.2) on average. In addition, a significantly higher proportion of 4–8-year-old children met the AI values compared to 9–13 years old (26% vs. 5%, p < 0.001). Amongst the older age group, a higher proportion of boys met the water intake recommendations compared to girls (7.9% vs. 2.2% p = 0.012). Similarly, a significantly higher proportion of boys had adequate levels of TWI compared to girls within the 4–8-year-old children group (41.5% vs. 9.7%), p < 0.001 (data not shown).


Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4 – 13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study
Shortfalls in total water intakes amongst 4–13-year-old Lebanese children as compared to the IOM adequate intake (AI) and proportion of children meeting the age and gender-specific AIs. Total daily water intake from all foods and beverages (consumed) by age group and gender compared to Institute of Medicine Recommendations (IOM) (shortfall). Proportions of children meeting and not meeting needs compared to IOM are displayed in the corresponding pie charts.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037539&req=5

nutrients-08-00554-f001: Shortfalls in total water intakes amongst 4–13-year-old Lebanese children as compared to the IOM adequate intake (AI) and proportion of children meeting the age and gender-specific AIs. Total daily water intake from all foods and beverages (consumed) by age group and gender compared to Institute of Medicine Recommendations (IOM) (shortfall). Proportions of children meeting and not meeting needs compared to IOM are displayed in the corresponding pie charts.
Mentions: Total daily water intakes amongst 4–13-year-old Lebanese children were compared to the age and gender-specific water intake recommendations of the IOM (Figure 1). Compared to the AI values, the shortfall in water intake was observed to be higher amongst 9–13-year-old children (592 mL/day in boys and 533 mL/day in girls) compared to their younger counterparts (99 mL/day). Overall, only 15% (n = 114) of the study sample met the recommendations for daily TWI, among whom the mean TWI was estimated at 2047 mL/day (SE = 32.2) on average. In addition, a significantly higher proportion of 4–8-year-old children met the AI values compared to 9–13 years old (26% vs. 5%, p < 0.001). Amongst the older age group, a higher proportion of boys met the water intake recommendations compared to girls (7.9% vs. 2.2% p = 0.012). Similarly, a significantly higher proportion of boys had adequate levels of TWI compared to girls within the 4–8-year-old children group (41.5% vs. 9.7%), p < 0.001 (data not shown).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9&ndash;13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4&ndash;8 years old (92%&ndash;98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life.

No MeSH data available.