Limits...
Short- and Long-Term Effects of Wholegrain Oat Intake on Weight Management and Glucolipid Metabolism in Overweight Type-2 Diabetics: A Randomized Control Trial

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Glycemic control and weight reduction are primary goals for the management of overweight and obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Effective management cannot be achieved without an appropriate diet. Our study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of oat intake and develop a reasonable dietary plan for overweight T2DM patients. A randomized control trial, registered under ClinicalTrials.gov (Identification code: NCT01495052), was carried out among adult T2DM patients. A subgroup of 298 overweight subjects was selected and received a 30-day centralized intervention and 1-year free-living follow-up. Participants were randomly allocated to one of the following four groups. The usual care group (n = 60) received no intervention; the healthy diet group (n = 79) received a low-fat and high-fiber diet (“healthy diet”); the 50 g-oats group (n = 80) and 100 g-oats group (n = 79) received the “healthy diet” with the same amount of cereals replaced by 50 g and 100 g oats respectively. Anthropometric, blood glycemic and lipid variables were measured. For the 30-day intervention, significant differences in the changes of FPG (fasting plasma glucose), PPG (postprandial plasma glucose), HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin), HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), TC (total cholesterol), TG (total triglycerides), and LDL-c (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were observed among the four groups. Compared to the healthy diet group, the 50 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (mean difference (MD): −1.04 mmol/L; 95% CI: −2.03, −0.05) and TC (MD: −0.24 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.47, −0.01); the 100 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (MD: −1.48 mmol/L; 95% CI: −2.57, −0.39), HOMA-IR (MD: −1.77 mU·mol/L2; 95% CI: −3.49, −0.05), TC (MD: −0.33 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.56, −0.10) and LDL-c (MD: −0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.41, −0.03). In the 1-year follow-up, greater effects in reducing weight (MD: −0.89 kg; 95% CI: −1.56, −0.22), HbA1c (MD: −0.64%; 95% CI: −1.19, −0.09) and TG (MD: −0.70 mmol/L; 95% CI: −1.11, −0.29) were observed in the 100 g-oats group. In conclusion, short- and long-term oat intake had significant effects on controlling hyperglycemia, lowering blood lipid and reducing weight. Our study provided some supportive evidence for recommending oat as a good whole grain selection for overweight diabetics.

No MeSH data available.


Flow chart for subject enrollment, allocation, intervention and follow-up.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037534&req=5

nutrients-08-00549-f001: Flow chart for subject enrollment, allocation, intervention and follow-up.

Mentions: A subgroup of 298 subjects, meeting the Chinese criteria of overweight (body mass index ≥ 24 kg/m2), was selected from 445 adult patients with T2DM, who had participated in the 30-day centralized management of a dietary program and the 1-year free-living follow-up in Baotou, China. The sample size of the original study was calculated based on an estimated standard deviation (SD) of 2.7 mmol/L in HbA1c. A total of 420 participants were required to detect a difference of 0.80 SD of HbA1c with 90% power and allowing for 10% missing data. Individuals who were heavy smokers (smoking more than or equal to 25 cigarettes per day) or heavy drinkers (drinking more than 25 mL alcohol per day), or had recent changes (less than 3 months) in diet and physical activities, or had severe cardiovascular, renal or hepatic complications, mental illness or other serious diseases, or recently accepted glucocorticoid treatment, or had already been eating oats or oat products as part of their diet, were excluded. At the end of recruitment, a total of 445 individuals were included and randomized, of which 298 overweight participants were selected for this subgroup analysis. Eleven patients dropped out during the 1-year follow-up due to personal reasons with no difference in drop-out rates among the four groups (p = 0.774) (Figure 1).


Short- and Long-Term Effects of Wholegrain Oat Intake on Weight Management and Glucolipid Metabolism in Overweight Type-2 Diabetics: A Randomized Control Trial
Flow chart for subject enrollment, allocation, intervention and follow-up.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037534&req=5

nutrients-08-00549-f001: Flow chart for subject enrollment, allocation, intervention and follow-up.
Mentions: A subgroup of 298 subjects, meeting the Chinese criteria of overweight (body mass index ≥ 24 kg/m2), was selected from 445 adult patients with T2DM, who had participated in the 30-day centralized management of a dietary program and the 1-year free-living follow-up in Baotou, China. The sample size of the original study was calculated based on an estimated standard deviation (SD) of 2.7 mmol/L in HbA1c. A total of 420 participants were required to detect a difference of 0.80 SD of HbA1c with 90% power and allowing for 10% missing data. Individuals who were heavy smokers (smoking more than or equal to 25 cigarettes per day) or heavy drinkers (drinking more than 25 mL alcohol per day), or had recent changes (less than 3 months) in diet and physical activities, or had severe cardiovascular, renal or hepatic complications, mental illness or other serious diseases, or recently accepted glucocorticoid treatment, or had already been eating oats or oat products as part of their diet, were excluded. At the end of recruitment, a total of 445 individuals were included and randomized, of which 298 overweight participants were selected for this subgroup analysis. Eleven patients dropped out during the 1-year follow-up due to personal reasons with no difference in drop-out rates among the four groups (p = 0.774) (Figure 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Glycemic control and weight reduction are primary goals for the management of overweight and obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Effective management cannot be achieved without an appropriate diet. Our study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of oat intake and develop a reasonable dietary plan for overweight T2DM patients. A randomized control trial, registered under ClinicalTrials.gov (Identification code: NCT01495052), was carried out among adult T2DM patients. A subgroup of 298 overweight subjects was selected and received a 30-day centralized intervention and 1-year free-living follow-up. Participants were randomly allocated to one of the following four groups. The usual care group (n = 60) received no intervention; the healthy diet group (n = 79) received a low-fat and high-fiber diet (“healthy diet”); the 50 g-oats group (n = 80) and 100 g-oats group (n = 79) received the “healthy diet” with the same amount of cereals replaced by 50 g and 100 g oats respectively. Anthropometric, blood glycemic and lipid variables were measured. For the 30-day intervention, significant differences in the changes of FPG (fasting plasma glucose), PPG (postprandial plasma glucose), HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin), HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), TC (total cholesterol), TG (total triglycerides), and LDL-c (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were observed among the four groups. Compared to the healthy diet group, the 50 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (mean difference (MD): −1.04 mmol/L; 95% CI: −2.03, −0.05) and TC (MD: −0.24 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.47, −0.01); the 100 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (MD: −1.48 mmol/L; 95% CI: −2.57, −0.39), HOMA-IR (MD: −1.77 mU·mol/L2; 95% CI: −3.49, −0.05), TC (MD: −0.33 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.56, −0.10) and LDL-c (MD: −0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.41, −0.03). In the 1-year follow-up, greater effects in reducing weight (MD: −0.89 kg; 95% CI: −1.56, −0.22), HbA1c (MD: −0.64%; 95% CI: −1.19, −0.09) and TG (MD: −0.70 mmol/L; 95% CI: −1.11, −0.29) were observed in the 100 g-oats group. In conclusion, short- and long-term oat intake had significant effects on controlling hyperglycemia, lowering blood lipid and reducing weight. Our study provided some supportive evidence for recommending oat as a good whole grain selection for overweight diabetics.

No MeSH data available.