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Role of Young Child Formulae and Supplements to Ensure Nutritional Adequacy in U.K. Young Children

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) states that young child formulae (YCFs) “cannot be considered as a necessity to satisfy the nutritional requirements” of children aged 12–36 months. This study quantifies the dietary changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy in U.K. young children who consume YCFs and/or supplements and in those who do not. Dietary data from 1147 young children (aged 12–18 months) were used to identify, using linear programming models, the minimum changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy: (i) by changing the quantities of foods initially consumed by each child (repertoire-foods); and (ii) by introducing new foods (non-repertoire-foods). Most of the children consumed neither YCFs, nor supplements (61.6%). Nutritional adequacy with repertoire-foods alone was ensured for only one child in this group, against 74.4% of the children consuming YCFs and supplement. When access to all foods was allowed, smaller food changes were required when YCFs and supplements were initially consumed than when they were not. In the total sample, the main dietary shifts needed to ensure nutritional adequacy were an increase in YCF and a decrease in cow’s milk (+226 g/day and −181 g/day, respectively). Increasing YCF and supplement consumption was the shortest way to cover the EFSA nutrient requirements of U.K. children.

No MeSH data available.


Scatter plot of the variations in YCF and cow’s milk quantities between diets modeled with all-foods models a and observed diets and percentage of children in each quarter *, according to the groups of children. a “All-foods models” refers to the linear programming models where all of the foods reported as consumed by the sample were taken as variables. b “No YCF, no Suppl” refers to children who did not consume either YCFs or supplements during the four days of dietary record; “no YCF, Suppl” refers to those who did not consume YCFs, but who consumed supplements; “YCF, no Suppl” refers to those who consumed YCFs, but not supplements; “YCF & Suppl” refers to those who consumed both YCFs and supplements. * Values in each quarter indicate the percentage of children in this quarter, excluding those with  variations. Null variations for both cow’s milk and YCFs (spots at the center of the grid) were seen for only 0.4% of the whole sample; 2.5% had a variation in cow’s milk, but not in YCF (spots on the vertical line, x = 0); and 9.6 % had a variation in YCF, but not in cow’s milk (spots on the horizontal line, y = 0).
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nutrients-08-00539-f003: Scatter plot of the variations in YCF and cow’s milk quantities between diets modeled with all-foods models a and observed diets and percentage of children in each quarter *, according to the groups of children. a “All-foods models” refers to the linear programming models where all of the foods reported as consumed by the sample were taken as variables. b “No YCF, no Suppl” refers to children who did not consume either YCFs or supplements during the four days of dietary record; “no YCF, Suppl” refers to those who did not consume YCFs, but who consumed supplements; “YCF, no Suppl” refers to those who consumed YCFs, but not supplements; “YCF & Suppl” refers to those who consumed both YCFs and supplements. * Values in each quarter indicate the percentage of children in this quarter, excluding those with variations. Null variations for both cow’s milk and YCFs (spots at the center of the grid) were seen for only 0.4% of the whole sample; 2.5% had a variation in cow’s milk, but not in YCF (spots on the vertical line, x = 0); and 9.6 % had a variation in YCF, but not in cow’s milk (spots on the horizontal line, y = 0).

Mentions: Figure 3 shows, for each individual (represented by a spot), the variations of YCF and cow’s milk quantities between modeled and observed diets (g/day). For a large majority of children (66.4%), diet modeling induced a decrease in cow’s milk and an increase in YCF quantities.


Role of Young Child Formulae and Supplements to Ensure Nutritional Adequacy in U.K. Young Children
Scatter plot of the variations in YCF and cow’s milk quantities between diets modeled with all-foods models a and observed diets and percentage of children in each quarter *, according to the groups of children. a “All-foods models” refers to the linear programming models where all of the foods reported as consumed by the sample were taken as variables. b “No YCF, no Suppl” refers to children who did not consume either YCFs or supplements during the four days of dietary record; “no YCF, Suppl” refers to those who did not consume YCFs, but who consumed supplements; “YCF, no Suppl” refers to those who consumed YCFs, but not supplements; “YCF & Suppl” refers to those who consumed both YCFs and supplements. * Values in each quarter indicate the percentage of children in this quarter, excluding those with  variations. Null variations for both cow’s milk and YCFs (spots at the center of the grid) were seen for only 0.4% of the whole sample; 2.5% had a variation in cow’s milk, but not in YCF (spots on the vertical line, x = 0); and 9.6 % had a variation in YCF, but not in cow’s milk (spots on the horizontal line, y = 0).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037526&req=5

nutrients-08-00539-f003: Scatter plot of the variations in YCF and cow’s milk quantities between diets modeled with all-foods models a and observed diets and percentage of children in each quarter *, according to the groups of children. a “All-foods models” refers to the linear programming models where all of the foods reported as consumed by the sample were taken as variables. b “No YCF, no Suppl” refers to children who did not consume either YCFs or supplements during the four days of dietary record; “no YCF, Suppl” refers to those who did not consume YCFs, but who consumed supplements; “YCF, no Suppl” refers to those who consumed YCFs, but not supplements; “YCF & Suppl” refers to those who consumed both YCFs and supplements. * Values in each quarter indicate the percentage of children in this quarter, excluding those with variations. Null variations for both cow’s milk and YCFs (spots at the center of the grid) were seen for only 0.4% of the whole sample; 2.5% had a variation in cow’s milk, but not in YCF (spots on the vertical line, x = 0); and 9.6 % had a variation in YCF, but not in cow’s milk (spots on the horizontal line, y = 0).
Mentions: Figure 3 shows, for each individual (represented by a spot), the variations of YCF and cow’s milk quantities between modeled and observed diets (g/day). For a large majority of children (66.4%), diet modeling induced a decrease in cow’s milk and an increase in YCF quantities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) states that young child formulae (YCFs) “cannot be considered as a necessity to satisfy the nutritional requirements” of children aged 12–36 months. This study quantifies the dietary changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy in U.K. young children who consume YCFs and/or supplements and in those who do not. Dietary data from 1147 young children (aged 12–18 months) were used to identify, using linear programming models, the minimum changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy: (i) by changing the quantities of foods initially consumed by each child (repertoire-foods); and (ii) by introducing new foods (non-repertoire-foods). Most of the children consumed neither YCFs, nor supplements (61.6%). Nutritional adequacy with repertoire-foods alone was ensured for only one child in this group, against 74.4% of the children consuming YCFs and supplement. When access to all foods was allowed, smaller food changes were required when YCFs and supplements were initially consumed than when they were not. In the total sample, the main dietary shifts needed to ensure nutritional adequacy were an increase in YCF and a decrease in cow’s milk (+226 g/day and −181 g/day, respectively). Increasing YCF and supplement consumption was the shortest way to cover the EFSA nutrient requirements of U.K. children.

No MeSH data available.