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Role of Young Child Formulae and Supplements to Ensure Nutritional Adequacy in U.K. Young Children

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ABSTRACT

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) states that young child formulae (YCFs) “cannot be considered as a necessity to satisfy the nutritional requirements” of children aged 12–36 months. This study quantifies the dietary changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy in U.K. young children who consume YCFs and/or supplements and in those who do not. Dietary data from 1147 young children (aged 12–18 months) were used to identify, using linear programming models, the minimum changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy: (i) by changing the quantities of foods initially consumed by each child (repertoire-foods); and (ii) by introducing new foods (non-repertoire-foods). Most of the children consumed neither YCFs, nor supplements (61.6%). Nutritional adequacy with repertoire-foods alone was ensured for only one child in this group, against 74.4% of the children consuming YCFs and supplement. When access to all foods was allowed, smaller food changes were required when YCFs and supplements were initially consumed than when they were not. In the total sample, the main dietary shifts needed to ensure nutritional adequacy were an increase in YCF and a decrease in cow’s milk (+226 g/day and −181 g/day, respectively). Increasing YCF and supplement consumption was the shortest way to cover the EFSA nutrient requirements of U.K. children.

No MeSH data available.


Variations in food quantities between diets modeled (all-foods models b) and observed diets, across the four groups of children *,**. a “No YCF, no Suppl” refers to children who did not consume either YCFs or supplements during the four days of dietary record; “no YCF, Suppl” refers to those who did not consume YCFs, but who consumed supplements; “YCF, no Suppl” refers to those who consumed YCFs, but not supplements; “YCF & Suppl” refers to those who consumed both YCFs and supplements. b “All-foods models” refers to the linear programming models where all of the foods reported as consumed by the sample were taken as variables. * For each group of children, the mean difference between the total amount to increase and the total amount to decrease differed significantly from zero and was positive. ** The mean amount to decrease from repertoire-foods, the mean amount to increase from repertoire-foods and the mean amount to increase from non-repertoire-foods were significantly different across the four groups of children, with or without adjustment for age and energy.
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nutrients-08-00539-f002: Variations in food quantities between diets modeled (all-foods models b) and observed diets, across the four groups of children *,**. a “No YCF, no Suppl” refers to children who did not consume either YCFs or supplements during the four days of dietary record; “no YCF, Suppl” refers to those who did not consume YCFs, but who consumed supplements; “YCF, no Suppl” refers to those who consumed YCFs, but not supplements; “YCF & Suppl” refers to those who consumed both YCFs and supplements. b “All-foods models” refers to the linear programming models where all of the foods reported as consumed by the sample were taken as variables. * For each group of children, the mean difference between the total amount to increase and the total amount to decrease differed significantly from zero and was positive. ** The mean amount to decrease from repertoire-foods, the mean amount to increase from repertoire-foods and the mean amount to increase from non-repertoire-foods were significantly different across the four groups of children, with or without adjustment for age and energy.

Mentions: When access to all foods (i.e., both repertoire- and non-repertoire-foods) was allowed, it was possible to model a nutritionally-adequate diet for each child (i.e., feasibility reached 100%). On average, this induced a net increase in total diet weight (on average +185 g/day), as a result of both the increase and decrease in repertoire-foods and the addition of non-repertoire-foods. The largest variations in food quantities were required for children of the “no YCF, no Suppl” group (Figure 2). By contrast, in the “YCF & Suppl” group, the addition of non-repertoire-foods and the decrease in repertoire-foods were significantly smaller than in all of the other groups (two-by-two tests, data not shown).


Role of Young Child Formulae and Supplements to Ensure Nutritional Adequacy in U.K. Young Children
Variations in food quantities between diets modeled (all-foods models b) and observed diets, across the four groups of children *,**. a “No YCF, no Suppl” refers to children who did not consume either YCFs or supplements during the four days of dietary record; “no YCF, Suppl” refers to those who did not consume YCFs, but who consumed supplements; “YCF, no Suppl” refers to those who consumed YCFs, but not supplements; “YCF & Suppl” refers to those who consumed both YCFs and supplements. b “All-foods models” refers to the linear programming models where all of the foods reported as consumed by the sample were taken as variables. * For each group of children, the mean difference between the total amount to increase and the total amount to decrease differed significantly from zero and was positive. ** The mean amount to decrease from repertoire-foods, the mean amount to increase from repertoire-foods and the mean amount to increase from non-repertoire-foods were significantly different across the four groups of children, with or without adjustment for age and energy.
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nutrients-08-00539-f002: Variations in food quantities between diets modeled (all-foods models b) and observed diets, across the four groups of children *,**. a “No YCF, no Suppl” refers to children who did not consume either YCFs or supplements during the four days of dietary record; “no YCF, Suppl” refers to those who did not consume YCFs, but who consumed supplements; “YCF, no Suppl” refers to those who consumed YCFs, but not supplements; “YCF & Suppl” refers to those who consumed both YCFs and supplements. b “All-foods models” refers to the linear programming models where all of the foods reported as consumed by the sample were taken as variables. * For each group of children, the mean difference between the total amount to increase and the total amount to decrease differed significantly from zero and was positive. ** The mean amount to decrease from repertoire-foods, the mean amount to increase from repertoire-foods and the mean amount to increase from non-repertoire-foods were significantly different across the four groups of children, with or without adjustment for age and energy.
Mentions: When access to all foods (i.e., both repertoire- and non-repertoire-foods) was allowed, it was possible to model a nutritionally-adequate diet for each child (i.e., feasibility reached 100%). On average, this induced a net increase in total diet weight (on average +185 g/day), as a result of both the increase and decrease in repertoire-foods and the addition of non-repertoire-foods. The largest variations in food quantities were required for children of the “no YCF, no Suppl” group (Figure 2). By contrast, in the “YCF & Suppl” group, the addition of non-repertoire-foods and the decrease in repertoire-foods were significantly smaller than in all of the other groups (two-by-two tests, data not shown).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) states that young child formulae (YCFs) “cannot be considered as a necessity to satisfy the nutritional requirements” of children aged 12–36 months. This study quantifies the dietary changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy in U.K. young children who consume YCFs and/or supplements and in those who do not. Dietary data from 1147 young children (aged 12–18 months) were used to identify, using linear programming models, the minimum changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy: (i) by changing the quantities of foods initially consumed by each child (repertoire-foods); and (ii) by introducing new foods (non-repertoire-foods). Most of the children consumed neither YCFs, nor supplements (61.6%). Nutritional adequacy with repertoire-foods alone was ensured for only one child in this group, against 74.4% of the children consuming YCFs and supplement. When access to all foods was allowed, smaller food changes were required when YCFs and supplements were initially consumed than when they were not. In the total sample, the main dietary shifts needed to ensure nutritional adequacy were an increase in YCF and a decrease in cow’s milk (+226 g/day and −181 g/day, respectively). Increasing YCF and supplement consumption was the shortest way to cover the EFSA nutrient requirements of U.K. children.

No MeSH data available.