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Seasonal Changes in Vitamin D-Effective UVB Availability in Europe and Associations with Population Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D

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ABSTRACT

Low vitamin D status is common in Europe. The major source of vitamin D in humans is ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced dermal synthesis of cholecalciferol, whereas food sources are believed to play a lesser role. Our objectives were to assess UVB availability (Jm−2) across several European locations ranging from 35° N to 69° N, and compare these UVB data with representative population serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) data from Ireland (51–54° N), Iceland (64° N) and Norway (69° N), as exemplars. Vitamin D-effective UVB availability was modelled for nine European countries/regions using a validated UV irradiance model. Standardized serum 25(OH)D data was accessed from the EC-funded ODIN project. The results showed that UVB availability decreased with increasing latitude (from 35° N to 69° N), while all locations exhibited significant seasonal variation in UVB. The UVB data suggested that the duration of vitamin D winters ranged from none (at 35° N) to eight months (at 69° N). The large seasonal fluctuations in serum 25(OH)D in Irish adults was much dampened in Norwegian and Icelandic adults, despite considerably lower UVB availability at these northern latitudes but with much higher vitamin D intakes. In conclusion, increasing the vitamin D intake can ameliorate the impact of low UVB availability on serum 25(OH)D status in Europe.

No MeSH data available.


Mean monthly modeled UVB doses effective for pre-vitamin D3 synthesis (Jm−2) across Europe for June (A) and December (B), based on average of data from years 2003–2012. Scale begins 1000 Jm−2.
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nutrients-08-00533-f003: Mean monthly modeled UVB doses effective for pre-vitamin D3 synthesis (Jm−2) across Europe for June (A) and December (B), based on average of data from years 2003–2012. Scale begins 1000 Jm−2.

Mentions: The variability in modeled UVB availability over Europe overall during both June and December is shown in Figure 3. The decreasing UVB availability with increasing latitude within the range ~35–70° N is very evident in summer (Figure 3A), and is associated with increasing SZA (as evidenced by the cosine of SZA at true solar noon on 21 June; Table 1). The lack of UVB dose > 1000 Jm−2 throughout all of Europe during December is also very striking (Figure 3B), while decreasing UVB availability (within the range 0–1000 Jm−2) with increasing latitude is still evident (data not shown).


Seasonal Changes in Vitamin D-Effective UVB Availability in Europe and Associations with Population Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D
Mean monthly modeled UVB doses effective for pre-vitamin D3 synthesis (Jm−2) across Europe for June (A) and December (B), based on average of data from years 2003–2012. Scale begins 1000 Jm−2.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037520&req=5

nutrients-08-00533-f003: Mean monthly modeled UVB doses effective for pre-vitamin D3 synthesis (Jm−2) across Europe for June (A) and December (B), based on average of data from years 2003–2012. Scale begins 1000 Jm−2.
Mentions: The variability in modeled UVB availability over Europe overall during both June and December is shown in Figure 3. The decreasing UVB availability with increasing latitude within the range ~35–70° N is very evident in summer (Figure 3A), and is associated with increasing SZA (as evidenced by the cosine of SZA at true solar noon on 21 June; Table 1). The lack of UVB dose > 1000 Jm−2 throughout all of Europe during December is also very striking (Figure 3B), while decreasing UVB availability (within the range 0–1000 Jm−2) with increasing latitude is still evident (data not shown).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Low vitamin D status is common in Europe. The major source of vitamin D in humans is ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced dermal synthesis of cholecalciferol, whereas food sources are believed to play a lesser role. Our objectives were to assess UVB availability (Jm−2) across several European locations ranging from 35° N to 69° N, and compare these UVB data with representative population serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) data from Ireland (51–54° N), Iceland (64° N) and Norway (69° N), as exemplars. Vitamin D-effective UVB availability was modelled for nine European countries/regions using a validated UV irradiance model. Standardized serum 25(OH)D data was accessed from the EC-funded ODIN project. The results showed that UVB availability decreased with increasing latitude (from 35° N to 69° N), while all locations exhibited significant seasonal variation in UVB. The UVB data suggested that the duration of vitamin D winters ranged from none (at 35° N) to eight months (at 69° N). The large seasonal fluctuations in serum 25(OH)D in Irish adults was much dampened in Norwegian and Icelandic adults, despite considerably lower UVB availability at these northern latitudes but with much higher vitamin D intakes. In conclusion, increasing the vitamin D intake can ameliorate the impact of low UVB availability on serum 25(OH)D status in Europe.

No MeSH data available.