Limits...
Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE), which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males) were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat), and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w) PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1), that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of PGE treatment on hepatic steatosis-related markers in HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. The data are the mean ± SEM (n = 10). (A) The weight of the liver and plasma levels of hepatic cholesterol, TG, and FFA; (B) hematoxylin and eosin (H & E)-stained transverse sections of the liver, 1000× magnification; (C) levels of the hepatic lipotoxicity markers GOT and GPT; (D) Lipogenesis-related gene expression; and (E) Hepatic lipid-regulating enzyme activities in the HFD-fed mice. ND, mice fed a normal diet; HFD, mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) alone; PGE, Platycodon grandiflorus root extract (5%, w/w)-treated HFD-fed mice.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037519&req=5

nutrients-08-00532-f003: Effects of PGE treatment on hepatic steatosis-related markers in HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. The data are the mean ± SEM (n = 10). (A) The weight of the liver and plasma levels of hepatic cholesterol, TG, and FFA; (B) hematoxylin and eosin (H & E)-stained transverse sections of the liver, 1000× magnification; (C) levels of the hepatic lipotoxicity markers GOT and GPT; (D) Lipogenesis-related gene expression; and (E) Hepatic lipid-regulating enzyme activities in the HFD-fed mice. ND, mice fed a normal diet; HFD, mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) alone; PGE, Platycodon grandiflorus root extract (5%, w/w)-treated HFD-fed mice.

Mentions: The PGE treatment markedly decreased the hepatic cholesterol, TG, and FFA content, as well as glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels in plasma (Figure 3A,C). In addition, PGE significantly decreased the mRNA expression of the genes and transcription factors involved in lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis, with a simultaneous increase in FAO in the liver of the DIO mice (Figure 3D). Tissue morphology analysis also revealed that the accumulation of hepatic lipids was dropped and the cell size was decreased in the PGE group compared with those in the HFD group (Figure 3B). Furthermore, activities of the hepatic enzymes involved in FA and TG synthesis (FAS, G6PD, ME, and PAP) were significantly decreased by the PGE treatment, with a significant increase in the activity of β-oxidation in the liver (Figure 3E) compared with that in the HFD group.


Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue
Effects of PGE treatment on hepatic steatosis-related markers in HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. The data are the mean ± SEM (n = 10). (A) The weight of the liver and plasma levels of hepatic cholesterol, TG, and FFA; (B) hematoxylin and eosin (H & E)-stained transverse sections of the liver, 1000× magnification; (C) levels of the hepatic lipotoxicity markers GOT and GPT; (D) Lipogenesis-related gene expression; and (E) Hepatic lipid-regulating enzyme activities in the HFD-fed mice. ND, mice fed a normal diet; HFD, mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) alone; PGE, Platycodon grandiflorus root extract (5%, w/w)-treated HFD-fed mice.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037519&req=5

nutrients-08-00532-f003: Effects of PGE treatment on hepatic steatosis-related markers in HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. The data are the mean ± SEM (n = 10). (A) The weight of the liver and plasma levels of hepatic cholesterol, TG, and FFA; (B) hematoxylin and eosin (H & E)-stained transverse sections of the liver, 1000× magnification; (C) levels of the hepatic lipotoxicity markers GOT and GPT; (D) Lipogenesis-related gene expression; and (E) Hepatic lipid-regulating enzyme activities in the HFD-fed mice. ND, mice fed a normal diet; HFD, mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) alone; PGE, Platycodon grandiflorus root extract (5%, w/w)-treated HFD-fed mice.
Mentions: The PGE treatment markedly decreased the hepatic cholesterol, TG, and FFA content, as well as glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels in plasma (Figure 3A,C). In addition, PGE significantly decreased the mRNA expression of the genes and transcription factors involved in lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis, with a simultaneous increase in FAO in the liver of the DIO mice (Figure 3D). Tissue morphology analysis also revealed that the accumulation of hepatic lipids was dropped and the cell size was decreased in the PGE group compared with those in the HFD group (Figure 3B). Furthermore, activities of the hepatic enzymes involved in FA and TG synthesis (FAS, G6PD, ME, and PAP) were significantly decreased by the PGE treatment, with a significant increase in the activity of β-oxidation in the liver (Figure 3E) compared with that in the HFD group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE), which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males) were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat), and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w) PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1), that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus