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Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE), which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males) were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat), and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w) PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1), that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of PGE on body fat mass, energy expenditure, and mRNA expression of adipogenic and thermogenic genes via regulation of fatty acid oxidation in epididymal white adipose tissue in HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. The data are the mean ± SEM (n = 10). (A) The weight of adipose tissue; (B) representative photographs of adipocytes in the epididymal WAT of the mice, 200× magnification; and (C) energy expenditure and oxygen consumption (Vo2). Adipogenesis (D); thermogenesis (E); and adipokine (F) related gene expression. (G) Western blot analysis of β-actin, PPARγ, CD36, PGC1α, and CPT2 expression. ND, mice fed a normal diet; HFD, mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) alone; PGE, Platycodon grandiflorus root extract (5%, w/w)-treated HFD-fed mice; WAT, white adipose tissue.
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nutrients-08-00532-f002: Effects of PGE on body fat mass, energy expenditure, and mRNA expression of adipogenic and thermogenic genes via regulation of fatty acid oxidation in epididymal white adipose tissue in HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. The data are the mean ± SEM (n = 10). (A) The weight of adipose tissue; (B) representative photographs of adipocytes in the epididymal WAT of the mice, 200× magnification; and (C) energy expenditure and oxygen consumption (Vo2). Adipogenesis (D); thermogenesis (E); and adipokine (F) related gene expression. (G) Western blot analysis of β-actin, PPARγ, CD36, PGC1α, and CPT2 expression. ND, mice fed a normal diet; HFD, mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) alone; PGE, Platycodon grandiflorus root extract (5%, w/w)-treated HFD-fed mice; WAT, white adipose tissue.

Mentions: The PGE-treated mice showed significantly upregulated mRNA expression levels for a key lipogenic gene, PPARγ, with simultaneous increases in mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) in eWAT (Figure 2D). However, similar to the results for body weight, PGE significantly reduced the weight of all WAT depots (including epididymal, perirenal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric, subcutaneous, and interscapular depots), with a decrease in the epididymal adipocyte size compared with the data obtained for the HFD group of the DIO mice (Figure 2A,B). In addition, whole-body oxygen consumption and energy expenditure of PGE-treat mice were significantly increased relative to those of HFD of the DIO mice (Figure 2C). Notably, PGE markedly reduced the weight of all adipose tissue depots to the level of that in the ND group. Importantly, the body fat reduction by the PGE treatment was associated with a significant increase in the expression of thermogenic genes, including the SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1 genes (Figure 2E). Additionally, the PGE supplementation led to a significant increase in mRNA expression of adiponectin, with a decrease in the TNFα and leptin mRNA expression (Figure 2F). Western blot analysis revealed that the protein expression of the lipogenic and FA uptake factors, such as PPARγ and CD36, as well as FA oxidation related protein factors PGC1α and CPT2 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2) were markedly increased in the PGE-fed mice when compared with their expression in the eWAT of the HFD mice (Figure 2G).


Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue
Effects of PGE on body fat mass, energy expenditure, and mRNA expression of adipogenic and thermogenic genes via regulation of fatty acid oxidation in epididymal white adipose tissue in HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. The data are the mean ± SEM (n = 10). (A) The weight of adipose tissue; (B) representative photographs of adipocytes in the epididymal WAT of the mice, 200× magnification; and (C) energy expenditure and oxygen consumption (Vo2). Adipogenesis (D); thermogenesis (E); and adipokine (F) related gene expression. (G) Western blot analysis of β-actin, PPARγ, CD36, PGC1α, and CPT2 expression. ND, mice fed a normal diet; HFD, mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) alone; PGE, Platycodon grandiflorus root extract (5%, w/w)-treated HFD-fed mice; WAT, white adipose tissue.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037519&req=5

nutrients-08-00532-f002: Effects of PGE on body fat mass, energy expenditure, and mRNA expression of adipogenic and thermogenic genes via regulation of fatty acid oxidation in epididymal white adipose tissue in HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. The data are the mean ± SEM (n = 10). (A) The weight of adipose tissue; (B) representative photographs of adipocytes in the epididymal WAT of the mice, 200× magnification; and (C) energy expenditure and oxygen consumption (Vo2). Adipogenesis (D); thermogenesis (E); and adipokine (F) related gene expression. (G) Western blot analysis of β-actin, PPARγ, CD36, PGC1α, and CPT2 expression. ND, mice fed a normal diet; HFD, mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) alone; PGE, Platycodon grandiflorus root extract (5%, w/w)-treated HFD-fed mice; WAT, white adipose tissue.
Mentions: The PGE-treated mice showed significantly upregulated mRNA expression levels for a key lipogenic gene, PPARγ, with simultaneous increases in mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) in eWAT (Figure 2D). However, similar to the results for body weight, PGE significantly reduced the weight of all WAT depots (including epididymal, perirenal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric, subcutaneous, and interscapular depots), with a decrease in the epididymal adipocyte size compared with the data obtained for the HFD group of the DIO mice (Figure 2A,B). In addition, whole-body oxygen consumption and energy expenditure of PGE-treat mice were significantly increased relative to those of HFD of the DIO mice (Figure 2C). Notably, PGE markedly reduced the weight of all adipose tissue depots to the level of that in the ND group. Importantly, the body fat reduction by the PGE treatment was associated with a significant increase in the expression of thermogenic genes, including the SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1 genes (Figure 2E). Additionally, the PGE supplementation led to a significant increase in mRNA expression of adiponectin, with a decrease in the TNFα and leptin mRNA expression (Figure 2F). Western blot analysis revealed that the protein expression of the lipogenic and FA uptake factors, such as PPARγ and CD36, as well as FA oxidation related protein factors PGC1α and CPT2 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2) were markedly increased in the PGE-fed mice when compared with their expression in the eWAT of the HFD mice (Figure 2G).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE), which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males) were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat), and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w) PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1), that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus