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Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18–79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%–47%; and pork dishes, 0%–50%). The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings.

No MeSH data available.


Flowchart of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) development study.
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nutrients-08-00528-f001: Flowchart of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) development study.

Mentions: Using 24-h dietary recall data, a data-driven approach [3,17] was adopted to decide on the foods to be included in the FFQ. Cognitive interviews were used to inform decisions related to the wording and layout of the FFQ, portion size descriptions and response categories. Figure 1 illustrates the various steps involved in the development of the FFQ. Each step in Figure 1 is described below; some steps were iterative and informed previous ones.


Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population
Flowchart of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) development study.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037515&req=5

nutrients-08-00528-f001: Flowchart of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) development study.
Mentions: Using 24-h dietary recall data, a data-driven approach [3,17] was adopted to decide on the foods to be included in the FFQ. Cognitive interviews were used to inform decisions related to the wording and layout of the FFQ, portion size descriptions and response categories. Figure 1 illustrates the various steps involved in the development of the FFQ. Each step in Figure 1 is described below; some steps were iterative and informed previous ones.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18–79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%–47%; and pork dishes, 0%–50%). The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings.

No MeSH data available.