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Effect of Consuming Oat Bran Mixed in Water before a Meal on Glycemic Responses in Healthy Humans — A Pilot Study

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Viscous dietary fibers including oat β-glucan are one of the most effective classes of functional food ingredients for reducing postprandial blood glucose. The mechanism of action is thought to be via an increase in viscosity of the stomach contents that delays gastric emptying and reduces mixing of food with digestive enzymes, which, in turn, retards glucose absorption. Previous studies suggest that taking viscous fibers separate from a meal may not be effective in reducing postprandial glycemia. Methods: We aimed to re-assess the effect of consuming a preload of a commercially available oat-bran (4.5, 13.6 or 27.3 g) containing 22% of high molecular weight oat β-glucan (O22 (OatWell®22)) mixed in water before a test-meal of white bread on glycemic responses in 10 healthy humans. Results: We found a significant effect of dose on blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) (p = 0.006) with AUC after 27.3 g of O22 being significantly lower than white bread only. Linear regression analysis showed that each gram of oat β-glucan reduced glucose AUC by 4.35% ± 1.20% (r = 0.507, p = 0.0008, n = 40) and peak rise by 6.57% ± 1.49% (r = 0.582, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: These data suggest the use of oat bran as nutritional preload strategy in the management of postprandial glycemia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Panel (A): Blood glucose concentrations after taking 0, 4.5, 13.6 and 27.3 g, respectively, of OatWell®22 (O22-0, O22-4.5, O22-13.6 and O22-27.3) at −5 min followed by 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread at 0 min. Values are means ± SEM for n = 10 subjects. a–c Means at the same time containing different letters within the superscripts differ significantly by Tukey’s test p < 0.05; (B,C): Percentage reduction from control in incremental areas under the curve (AUC); (B) and peak rise in blood glucose; (C) after taking 0, 4.5, 13.6 and 27.3 g of OatWell®22 (containing 0, 0.9, 2.6 and 5.3 g oat β-glucan, respectively) at −5 min followed by 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread at 0 min. Values are means ± 95% confidence interval for n = 9 or 10 subjects (after excluding outlying values).
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nutrients-08-00524-f001: Panel (A): Blood glucose concentrations after taking 0, 4.5, 13.6 and 27.3 g, respectively, of OatWell®22 (O22-0, O22-4.5, O22-13.6 and O22-27.3) at −5 min followed by 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread at 0 min. Values are means ± SEM for n = 10 subjects. a–c Means at the same time containing different letters within the superscripts differ significantly by Tukey’s test p < 0.05; (B,C): Percentage reduction from control in incremental areas under the curve (AUC); (B) and peak rise in blood glucose; (C) after taking 0, 4.5, 13.6 and 27.3 g of OatWell®22 (containing 0, 0.9, 2.6 and 5.3 g oat β-glucan, respectively) at −5 min followed by 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread at 0 min. Values are means ± 95% confidence interval for n = 9 or 10 subjects (after excluding outlying values).

Mentions: There were significant differences in blood glucose concentration among doses at 15 (p = 0.0015), 30 (p < 0.0001), 45 (p = 0.0003) and 120 min (p = 0.0004). At 15 min, blood glucose concentration after 27.3 g was significantly lower than those after 0 g and 4.5 g. At 30 min, blood glucose after the 27.3 g dose was significantly lower than after 13.6 g, which, in turn, was significantly lower than the 0 and 4.5 g doses. At 45 min blood glucose concentration after 27.3 g of O22 was significantly lower than those after the 0, 4.5 and 13.6 g doses. At 120 min, blood glucose after 27.3 g of O22 was significantly higher than that after the 0 and 4.5 g doses (Figure 1A). There was a significant effect of dose on blood glucose AUC (p = 0.006) with AUC after 27.3 g of O22 (141 ± 21 mmol × min/L) being significantly lower than both the 4.5 g and 0 g doses (174 ± 1 7 and 185 ± 18 mmol × min/L, respectively) and the AUC after 13.6 g being intermediate (167 ± 19 mmol × min/L). When AUC was expressed relative to that of bread alone, the relative responses for the 4.5, 13.6 and 27.3 g doses of O22, respectively, were 95.0% ± 4.1%, 90.3% ± 4.7% and 76.3% ± 7.7% with the only significant reduction being seen with the highest dose. However, linear regression analysis showed that each gram of oat β-glucan reduced glucose AUC by 4.35% ± 1.20% (r = 0.507, p = 0.0008, n = 40; Figure 1B). There was also a significant effect of dose for blood glucose peak rise (p < 0.0001) with the peak rise after 27.3 g of O22, 1.96 ± 0.29 mmol/L, being significantly lower than that after all the other doses (3.07 ± 0.25, 2.83 ± 0.30 and 2.72 ± 0.30 g for the 0, 4.5 and 13.6 g doses of O22, respectively). When peak rise was expressed relative to that for bread alone, the relative responses for the 4.5, 13.6 and 27.3 g doses of O22, respectively, were 92.5% ± 6.8%, 88.5% ± 7.2% and 63.8% ± 7.1% with the only significant reduction being seen with the highest dose. However, linear regression analysis showed that each gram of oat β-glucan reduced glucose peak rise by 6.57% ± 1.49% (r = 0.582, p < 0.0001, n = 40; Figure 1C).


Effect of Consuming Oat Bran Mixed in Water before a Meal on Glycemic Responses in Healthy Humans — A Pilot Study
Panel (A): Blood glucose concentrations after taking 0, 4.5, 13.6 and 27.3 g, respectively, of OatWell®22 (O22-0, O22-4.5, O22-13.6 and O22-27.3) at −5 min followed by 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread at 0 min. Values are means ± SEM for n = 10 subjects. a–c Means at the same time containing different letters within the superscripts differ significantly by Tukey’s test p < 0.05; (B,C): Percentage reduction from control in incremental areas under the curve (AUC); (B) and peak rise in blood glucose; (C) after taking 0, 4.5, 13.6 and 27.3 g of OatWell®22 (containing 0, 0.9, 2.6 and 5.3 g oat β-glucan, respectively) at −5 min followed by 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread at 0 min. Values are means ± 95% confidence interval for n = 9 or 10 subjects (after excluding outlying values).
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nutrients-08-00524-f001: Panel (A): Blood glucose concentrations after taking 0, 4.5, 13.6 and 27.3 g, respectively, of OatWell®22 (O22-0, O22-4.5, O22-13.6 and O22-27.3) at −5 min followed by 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread at 0 min. Values are means ± SEM for n = 10 subjects. a–c Means at the same time containing different letters within the superscripts differ significantly by Tukey’s test p < 0.05; (B,C): Percentage reduction from control in incremental areas under the curve (AUC); (B) and peak rise in blood glucose; (C) after taking 0, 4.5, 13.6 and 27.3 g of OatWell®22 (containing 0, 0.9, 2.6 and 5.3 g oat β-glucan, respectively) at −5 min followed by 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread at 0 min. Values are means ± 95% confidence interval for n = 9 or 10 subjects (after excluding outlying values).
Mentions: There were significant differences in blood glucose concentration among doses at 15 (p = 0.0015), 30 (p < 0.0001), 45 (p = 0.0003) and 120 min (p = 0.0004). At 15 min, blood glucose concentration after 27.3 g was significantly lower than those after 0 g and 4.5 g. At 30 min, blood glucose after the 27.3 g dose was significantly lower than after 13.6 g, which, in turn, was significantly lower than the 0 and 4.5 g doses. At 45 min blood glucose concentration after 27.3 g of O22 was significantly lower than those after the 0, 4.5 and 13.6 g doses. At 120 min, blood glucose after 27.3 g of O22 was significantly higher than that after the 0 and 4.5 g doses (Figure 1A). There was a significant effect of dose on blood glucose AUC (p = 0.006) with AUC after 27.3 g of O22 (141 ± 21 mmol × min/L) being significantly lower than both the 4.5 g and 0 g doses (174 ± 1 7 and 185 ± 18 mmol × min/L, respectively) and the AUC after 13.6 g being intermediate (167 ± 19 mmol × min/L). When AUC was expressed relative to that of bread alone, the relative responses for the 4.5, 13.6 and 27.3 g doses of O22, respectively, were 95.0% ± 4.1%, 90.3% ± 4.7% and 76.3% ± 7.7% with the only significant reduction being seen with the highest dose. However, linear regression analysis showed that each gram of oat β-glucan reduced glucose AUC by 4.35% ± 1.20% (r = 0.507, p = 0.0008, n = 40; Figure 1B). There was also a significant effect of dose for blood glucose peak rise (p < 0.0001) with the peak rise after 27.3 g of O22, 1.96 ± 0.29 mmol/L, being significantly lower than that after all the other doses (3.07 ± 0.25, 2.83 ± 0.30 and 2.72 ± 0.30 g for the 0, 4.5 and 13.6 g doses of O22, respectively). When peak rise was expressed relative to that for bread alone, the relative responses for the 4.5, 13.6 and 27.3 g doses of O22, respectively, were 92.5% ± 6.8%, 88.5% ± 7.2% and 63.8% ± 7.1% with the only significant reduction being seen with the highest dose. However, linear regression analysis showed that each gram of oat β-glucan reduced glucose peak rise by 6.57% ± 1.49% (r = 0.582, p < 0.0001, n = 40; Figure 1C).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Viscous dietary fibers including oat &beta;-glucan are one of the most effective classes of functional food ingredients for reducing postprandial blood glucose. The mechanism of action is thought to be via an increase in viscosity of the stomach contents that delays gastric emptying and reduces mixing of food with digestive enzymes, which, in turn, retards glucose absorption. Previous studies suggest that taking viscous fibers separate from a meal may not be effective in reducing postprandial glycemia. Methods: We aimed to re-assess the effect of consuming a preload of a commercially available oat-bran (4.5, 13.6 or 27.3 g) containing 22% of high molecular weight oat &beta;-glucan (O22 (OatWell&reg;22)) mixed in water before a test-meal of white bread on glycemic responses in 10 healthy humans. Results: We found a significant effect of dose on blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) (p = 0.006) with AUC after 27.3 g of O22 being significantly lower than white bread only. Linear regression analysis showed that each gram of oat &beta;-glucan reduced glucose AUC by 4.35% &plusmn; 1.20% (r = 0.507, p = 0.0008, n = 40) and peak rise by 6.57% &plusmn; 1.49% (r = 0.582, p &lt; 0.0001). Conclusion: These data suggest the use of oat bran as nutritional preload strategy in the management of postprandial glycemia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus