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The Contents of Ustiloxins A and B along with Their Distribution in Rice False Smut Balls

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Ustiloxins are cyclopeptide mycotoxins isolated from rice false smut balls (FSBs), the ball-like colonies transformed from the individual grains through the filament infection by the fungal pathogen Villosiclava virens. There were no obvious relations between ustiloxin content and any of the collection areas, collection times, or average weight of each FSB. The rice false smut balls at early, middle, and late maturity stages were respectively divided into different parts (glume, chlamydospores, mycelia, and pseudoparenchyma). The highest content of ustiloxins A and B of rice FSBs was found at the early maturity stage. Both ustiloxins A and B were mainly distributed in the middle layer containing mycelia and immature chlamydospores of the FSBs. When the rice FSBs were at the early maturity stage, the total yield of ustiloxins A and B in the middle layer of each ball was 48.3 µg, which was 3.20-fold of the yield (15.1 µg) of the inner part of the ball. The rice FSBs at the early maturity stage are the appropriate materials for the production of ustiloxins A and B.

No MeSH data available.


Rice false smut balls (FSBs) and their sections. (a–c) Rice FSBs in rice plants at early, middle, and late maturity stages, respectively; (d–f) whole rice FSBs at early, middle, and late maturity stages, respectively; (g–i) sections of rice FSBs at early, middle and late maturity stages, respectively.
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toxins-08-00262-f003: Rice false smut balls (FSBs) and their sections. (a–c) Rice FSBs in rice plants at early, middle, and late maturity stages, respectively; (d–f) whole rice FSBs at early, middle, and late maturity stages, respectively; (g–i) sections of rice FSBs at early, middle and late maturity stages, respectively.

Mentions: The rice FSBs were classified into three kinds according to the maturity degrees, namely early, middle, and late maturity stages (Figure 3). The rice FSBs at different maturity stages were carefully divided into the parts of chlamydospores (outer layer), mycelia with immature chlamydospores (middle layer), pseudoparenchyma (inner part), and glume by tweezer and scalpel. The rice false smut balls at the early stage were small, white to yellow (Figure 3a), and the average weight for each ball was 32.9 mg. At the middle stage, the balls became larger, the color was orange (Figure 3b), and the average weight for each ball was about 59.2 mg. However, at late stage, the balls were the largest, the color of the balls became dark-green to greenish black, with wrinkles on the surfaces (Figure 3c), and the average weight for each ball reached 94.1 mg. The weight of the eight balls at each stage were calculated to obtain the average weight for each ball. The rice FSBs at the early, middle, and late stages, as well as their sections, are shown in Figure 3. All samples were weighed and ground, and then kept at 4 °C until analysis.


The Contents of Ustiloxins A and B along with Their Distribution in Rice False Smut Balls
Rice false smut balls (FSBs) and their sections. (a–c) Rice FSBs in rice plants at early, middle, and late maturity stages, respectively; (d–f) whole rice FSBs at early, middle, and late maturity stages, respectively; (g–i) sections of rice FSBs at early, middle and late maturity stages, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037488&req=5

toxins-08-00262-f003: Rice false smut balls (FSBs) and their sections. (a–c) Rice FSBs in rice plants at early, middle, and late maturity stages, respectively; (d–f) whole rice FSBs at early, middle, and late maturity stages, respectively; (g–i) sections of rice FSBs at early, middle and late maturity stages, respectively.
Mentions: The rice FSBs were classified into three kinds according to the maturity degrees, namely early, middle, and late maturity stages (Figure 3). The rice FSBs at different maturity stages were carefully divided into the parts of chlamydospores (outer layer), mycelia with immature chlamydospores (middle layer), pseudoparenchyma (inner part), and glume by tweezer and scalpel. The rice false smut balls at the early stage were small, white to yellow (Figure 3a), and the average weight for each ball was 32.9 mg. At the middle stage, the balls became larger, the color was orange (Figure 3b), and the average weight for each ball was about 59.2 mg. However, at late stage, the balls were the largest, the color of the balls became dark-green to greenish black, with wrinkles on the surfaces (Figure 3c), and the average weight for each ball reached 94.1 mg. The weight of the eight balls at each stage were calculated to obtain the average weight for each ball. The rice FSBs at the early, middle, and late stages, as well as their sections, are shown in Figure 3. All samples were weighed and ground, and then kept at 4 °C until analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Ustiloxins are cyclopeptide mycotoxins isolated from rice false smut balls (FSBs), the ball-like colonies transformed from the individual grains through the filament infection by the fungal pathogen Villosiclava virens. There were no obvious relations between ustiloxin content and any of the collection areas, collection times, or average weight of each FSB. The rice false smut balls at early, middle, and late maturity stages were respectively divided into different parts (glume, chlamydospores, mycelia, and pseudoparenchyma). The highest content of ustiloxins A and B of rice FSBs was found at the early maturity stage. Both ustiloxins A and B were mainly distributed in the middle layer containing mycelia and immature chlamydospores of the FSBs. When the rice FSBs were at the early maturity stage, the total yield of ustiloxins A and B in the middle layer of each ball was 48.3 µg, which was 3.20-fold of the yield (15.1 µg) of the inner part of the ball. The rice FSBs at the early maturity stage are the appropriate materials for the production of ustiloxins A and B.

No MeSH data available.