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The Contents of Ustiloxins A and B along with Their Distribution in Rice False Smut Balls

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ABSTRACT

Ustiloxins are cyclopeptide mycotoxins isolated from rice false smut balls (FSBs), the ball-like colonies transformed from the individual grains through the filament infection by the fungal pathogen Villosiclava virens. There were no obvious relations between ustiloxin content and any of the collection areas, collection times, or average weight of each FSB. The rice false smut balls at early, middle, and late maturity stages were respectively divided into different parts (glume, chlamydospores, mycelia, and pseudoparenchyma). The highest content of ustiloxins A and B of rice FSBs was found at the early maturity stage. Both ustiloxins A and B were mainly distributed in the middle layer containing mycelia and immature chlamydospores of the FSBs. When the rice FSBs were at the early maturity stage, the total yield of ustiloxins A and B in the middle layer of each ball was 48.3 µg, which was 3.20-fold of the yield (15.1 µg) of the inner part of the ball. The rice FSBs at the early maturity stage are the appropriate materials for the production of ustiloxins A and B.

No MeSH data available.


Structures of ustiloxins A and B.
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toxins-08-00262-f001: Structures of ustiloxins A and B.

Mentions: In this study, two kinds of mycotoxins, namely ustiloxins and ustilaginoidins, were isolated from rice FSBs [8,10,11,12]. Ustiloxins belong to a group of cyclopeptides containing 13-membered cyclic core structure with an ether linkage. Both ustiloxins A and B (Figure 1) are the main components among five identified ustiloxins. Furthermore, ustiloxins A and B are the most toxic and represent about 80% of the total ustiloxin content [13,14,15]. The ustiloxins exhibit a variety of biological activities. These biological activities include antimitotic behavior by inhibiting microtubule assembly and skeleton formation of the eukaryotic cells and are regarded as potential antitumor agents for clinical applications [16,17,18]. Ustiloxins can also function as phytotoxins by inhibiting the radicle and plumule growth during the seed germination of rice, wheat, and maize, even inducing an abnormal swelling of the seeding roots [19,20].


The Contents of Ustiloxins A and B along with Their Distribution in Rice False Smut Balls
Structures of ustiloxins A and B.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037488&req=5

toxins-08-00262-f001: Structures of ustiloxins A and B.
Mentions: In this study, two kinds of mycotoxins, namely ustiloxins and ustilaginoidins, were isolated from rice FSBs [8,10,11,12]. Ustiloxins belong to a group of cyclopeptides containing 13-membered cyclic core structure with an ether linkage. Both ustiloxins A and B (Figure 1) are the main components among five identified ustiloxins. Furthermore, ustiloxins A and B are the most toxic and represent about 80% of the total ustiloxin content [13,14,15]. The ustiloxins exhibit a variety of biological activities. These biological activities include antimitotic behavior by inhibiting microtubule assembly and skeleton formation of the eukaryotic cells and are regarded as potential antitumor agents for clinical applications [16,17,18]. Ustiloxins can also function as phytotoxins by inhibiting the radicle and plumule growth during the seed germination of rice, wheat, and maize, even inducing an abnormal swelling of the seeding roots [19,20].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Ustiloxins are cyclopeptide mycotoxins isolated from rice false smut balls (FSBs), the ball-like colonies transformed from the individual grains through the filament infection by the fungal pathogen Villosiclava virens. There were no obvious relations between ustiloxin content and any of the collection areas, collection times, or average weight of each FSB. The rice false smut balls at early, middle, and late maturity stages were respectively divided into different parts (glume, chlamydospores, mycelia, and pseudoparenchyma). The highest content of ustiloxins A and B of rice FSBs was found at the early maturity stage. Both ustiloxins A and B were mainly distributed in the middle layer containing mycelia and immature chlamydospores of the FSBs. When the rice FSBs were at the early maturity stage, the total yield of ustiloxins A and B in the middle layer of each ball was 48.3 µg, which was 3.20-fold of the yield (15.1 µg) of the inner part of the ball. The rice FSBs at the early maturity stage are the appropriate materials for the production of ustiloxins A and B.

No MeSH data available.