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Development of Toxicological Risk Assessment Models for Acute and Chronic Exposure to Pollutants

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Alert level frameworks advise agencies on a sequence of monitoring and management actions, and are implemented so as to reduce the risk of the public coming into contact with hazardous substances. Their effectiveness relies on the detection of the hazard, but with many systems not receiving any regular monitoring, pollution events often go undetected. We developed toxicological risk assessment models for acute and chronic exposure to pollutants that incorporate the probabilities that the public will come into contact with undetected pollution events, to identify the level of risk a system poses in regards to the pollutant. As a proof of concept, we successfully demonstrated that the models could be applied to determine probabilities of acute and chronic illness types related to recreational activities in waterbodies containing cyanotoxins. Using the acute model, we identified lakes that present a ‘high’ risk to develop Day Away From Work illness, and lakes that present a ‘low’ or ‘medium’ risk to develop First Aid Cases when used for swimming. The developed risk models succeeded in categorising lakes according to their risk level to the public in an objective way. Modelling by how much the probability of public exposure has to decrease to lower the risks to acceptable levels will enable authorities to identify suitable control measures and monitoring strategies. We suggest broadening the application of these models to other contaminants.

No MeSH data available.


Concentrations (μg·L−1) of microcystin-LR that are expected to cause different consequence categories (i.e., First Aid, Day Away From Work, Long Term Injury, Fatality) as a function of body weight for (A) swimming and (B) boating. Short broken lines indicate a typical Australian adult (78.5 kg) [39], dash-dotted lines an Australian five year old child with the lowest decile weight of 15 kg [40]. The ingestion volumes used are 200 mL (swimming) and 100 mL (boating).
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toxins-08-00251-f002: Concentrations (μg·L−1) of microcystin-LR that are expected to cause different consequence categories (i.e., First Aid, Day Away From Work, Long Term Injury, Fatality) as a function of body weight for (A) swimming and (B) boating. Short broken lines indicate a typical Australian adult (78.5 kg) [39], dash-dotted lines an Australian five year old child with the lowest decile weight of 15 kg [40]. The ingestion volumes used are 200 mL (swimming) and 100 mL (boating).

Mentions: Using these ingestion volumes, concentration thresholds (Cconsequence; Equation (1)) that lead to specific consequences can be calculated for the two scenarios (i.e., swimming, non-immersive boating) as a function of body weight (Figure 2). This can be used to identify likely consequences during microcystin pollution for individuals of different body weight and activity.


Development of Toxicological Risk Assessment Models for Acute and Chronic Exposure to Pollutants
Concentrations (μg·L−1) of microcystin-LR that are expected to cause different consequence categories (i.e., First Aid, Day Away From Work, Long Term Injury, Fatality) as a function of body weight for (A) swimming and (B) boating. Short broken lines indicate a typical Australian adult (78.5 kg) [39], dash-dotted lines an Australian five year old child with the lowest decile weight of 15 kg [40]. The ingestion volumes used are 200 mL (swimming) and 100 mL (boating).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037477&req=5

toxins-08-00251-f002: Concentrations (μg·L−1) of microcystin-LR that are expected to cause different consequence categories (i.e., First Aid, Day Away From Work, Long Term Injury, Fatality) as a function of body weight for (A) swimming and (B) boating. Short broken lines indicate a typical Australian adult (78.5 kg) [39], dash-dotted lines an Australian five year old child with the lowest decile weight of 15 kg [40]. The ingestion volumes used are 200 mL (swimming) and 100 mL (boating).
Mentions: Using these ingestion volumes, concentration thresholds (Cconsequence; Equation (1)) that lead to specific consequences can be calculated for the two scenarios (i.e., swimming, non-immersive boating) as a function of body weight (Figure 2). This can be used to identify likely consequences during microcystin pollution for individuals of different body weight and activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Alert level frameworks advise agencies on a sequence of monitoring and management actions, and are implemented so as to reduce the risk of the public coming into contact with hazardous substances. Their effectiveness relies on the detection of the hazard, but with many systems not receiving any regular monitoring, pollution events often go undetected. We developed toxicological risk assessment models for acute and chronic exposure to pollutants that incorporate the probabilities that the public will come into contact with undetected pollution events, to identify the level of risk a system poses in regards to the pollutant. As a proof of concept, we successfully demonstrated that the models could be applied to determine probabilities of acute and chronic illness types related to recreational activities in waterbodies containing cyanotoxins. Using the acute model, we identified lakes that present a ‘high’ risk to develop Day Away From Work illness, and lakes that present a ‘low’ or ‘medium’ risk to develop First Aid Cases when used for swimming. The developed risk models succeeded in categorising lakes according to their risk level to the public in an objective way. Modelling by how much the probability of public exposure has to decrease to lower the risks to acceptable levels will enable authorities to identify suitable control measures and monitoring strategies. We suggest broadening the application of these models to other contaminants.

No MeSH data available.