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Probiotic legacy effects on gut microbial assembly in tilapia larvae

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The exposure of fish to environmental free-living microbes and its effect on early colonization in the gut have been studied in recent years. However, little is known regarding how the host and environment interact to shape gut communities during early life. Here, we tested whether the early microbial exposure of tilapia larvae affects the gut microbiota at later life stages. The experimental period was divided into three stages: axenic, probiotic and active suspension. Axenic tilapia larvae were reared either under conventional conditions (active suspension systems) or exposed to a single strain probiotic (Bacillus subtilis) added to the water. Microbial characterization by Illumina HiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed the presence of B. subtilis in the gut during the seven days of probiotic application. Although B. subtilis was no longer detected in the guts of fish exposed to the probiotic after day 7, gut microbiota of the exposed tilapia larvae remained significantly different from that of the control treatment. Compared with the control, fish gut microbiota under probiotic treatment was less affected by spatial differences resulting from tank replication, suggesting that the early probiotic contact contributed to the subsequent observation of low inter-individual variation.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of microbial communities in the gut and water samples of the control and probiotic treatments.The plots are based on the square root-transformed relative abundance data for the OTUs. The relative distances of all points represent the relative dissimilarities of the samples according to the Bray Curtis index. Ordination plots of water (a,b) and gut (c,d) microbial communities from the control (a,c) and probiotic treatments (b,d), respectively. The numbers 14, 21 and 28 indicate the three experimental days that the samples were collected. Rep 1-3: Replicate tank 1 to 3. The percentage of total variation explained by each PCo axis is shown in the parentheses.
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f4: Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of microbial communities in the gut and water samples of the control and probiotic treatments.The plots are based on the square root-transformed relative abundance data for the OTUs. The relative distances of all points represent the relative dissimilarities of the samples according to the Bray Curtis index. Ordination plots of water (a,b) and gut (c,d) microbial communities from the control (a,c) and probiotic treatments (b,d), respectively. The numbers 14, 21 and 28 indicate the three experimental days that the samples were collected. Rep 1-3: Replicate tank 1 to 3. The percentage of total variation explained by each PCo axis is shown in the parentheses.

Mentions: The effect of time on the water and gut microbiota composition was evaluated by comparing the profiles on days 14, 21 and 28. The water microbiota in the tanks was not significantly different between the two treatments on any of the sampling days, but a different pattern was revealed over time (Table S6), i.e., water microbial communities from the control treatment clearly clustered by tank, whereas this pattern was not observed in the probiotic treatment (Fig. 4a,b). Sediminibacterium (OTU 521) was the most abundant genus in the water of both treatments on days 21 and 28, with average relative abundances between 18% and 35%, respectively (Fig. 2).


Probiotic legacy effects on gut microbial assembly in tilapia larvae
Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of microbial communities in the gut and water samples of the control and probiotic treatments.The plots are based on the square root-transformed relative abundance data for the OTUs. The relative distances of all points represent the relative dissimilarities of the samples according to the Bray Curtis index. Ordination plots of water (a,b) and gut (c,d) microbial communities from the control (a,c) and probiotic treatments (b,d), respectively. The numbers 14, 21 and 28 indicate the three experimental days that the samples were collected. Rep 1-3: Replicate tank 1 to 3. The percentage of total variation explained by each PCo axis is shown in the parentheses.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037425&req=5

f4: Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of microbial communities in the gut and water samples of the control and probiotic treatments.The plots are based on the square root-transformed relative abundance data for the OTUs. The relative distances of all points represent the relative dissimilarities of the samples according to the Bray Curtis index. Ordination plots of water (a,b) and gut (c,d) microbial communities from the control (a,c) and probiotic treatments (b,d), respectively. The numbers 14, 21 and 28 indicate the three experimental days that the samples were collected. Rep 1-3: Replicate tank 1 to 3. The percentage of total variation explained by each PCo axis is shown in the parentheses.
Mentions: The effect of time on the water and gut microbiota composition was evaluated by comparing the profiles on days 14, 21 and 28. The water microbiota in the tanks was not significantly different between the two treatments on any of the sampling days, but a different pattern was revealed over time (Table S6), i.e., water microbial communities from the control treatment clearly clustered by tank, whereas this pattern was not observed in the probiotic treatment (Fig. 4a,b). Sediminibacterium (OTU 521) was the most abundant genus in the water of both treatments on days 21 and 28, with average relative abundances between 18% and 35%, respectively (Fig. 2).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The exposure of fish to environmental free-living microbes and its effect on early colonization in the gut have been studied in recent years. However, little is known regarding how the host and environment interact to shape gut communities during early life. Here, we tested whether the early microbial exposure of tilapia larvae affects the gut microbiota at later life stages. The experimental period was divided into three stages: axenic, probiotic and active suspension. Axenic tilapia larvae were reared either under conventional conditions (active suspension systems) or exposed to a single strain probiotic (Bacillus subtilis) added to the water. Microbial characterization by Illumina HiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed the presence of B. subtilis in the gut during the seven days of probiotic application. Although B. subtilis was no longer detected in the guts of fish exposed to the probiotic after day 7, gut microbiota of the exposed tilapia larvae remained significantly different from that of the control treatment. Compared with the control, fish gut microbiota under probiotic treatment was less affected by spatial differences resulting from tank replication, suggesting that the early probiotic contact contributed to the subsequent observation of low inter-individual variation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus