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Gene expression profiling reveals aryl hydrocarbon receptor as a possible target for photobiomodulation when using blue light

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ABSTRACT

Photobiomodulation (PBM) with blue light induces a biphasic dose response curve in proliferation of immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT), with a maximum anti-proliferative effect reached with 30min (41.4 J/cm2). The aim of this study was to test the photobiomodulatory effect of 41.4 J/cm2 blue light irradiation on ROS production, apoptosis and gene expression at different time points after irradiation of HaCaT cells in vitro and assess its safety. ROS concentration was increased 30 min after irradiation. However, already 1 h after irradiation, cells were able to reduce ROS and balance the concentration to a normal level. The sudden increase in ROS did not damage the cells, which was demonstrated with FACS analysis where HaCaT cells did not show any sign of apoptosis after blue light irradiation. Furthermore, a time course could be seen in gene expression analysis after blue light, with an early response of stimulated genes already 1 h after blue light irradiation, leading to the discovery of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor as possible target for blue light irradiation.

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Gene set enrichment analysis-time course of selected pathways for further evaluation of gene expression.
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f4: Gene set enrichment analysis-time course of selected pathways for further evaluation of gene expression.

Mentions: In a next step, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database (Table 1). Pathways containing the highest number of deregulated genes are depicted in Fig. 4. Already 1 h after blue light irradiation genes connected to steroid hormone biosynthesis, metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, chemical carcinogenesis and tryptophan metabolism are upregulated. The number of genes and intensity of upregulation increases for all these pathways with time from 1 h to 3 h and 24 h after irradiation. On the other hand, pathways containing downregulated genes that are reduced already 1 h after irradiation are processes like NF-κB signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway and TGF-β signaling pathway. These pathways are mainly linked to inflammation and infection. For NF-κB signaling pathway and TNF signaling pathway, downregulation increases from 1 h to 3 h, whereas it slightly decreases for T cell receptor signaling pathway and TGF-β signaling pathway. Nevertheless, 24 h after irradiation downregulation is higher for all these pathways when compared to 1 h after irradiation. Although rheumatoid arthritis is slightly upregulated 1 h after irradiation, the pathway is significantly downregulated 3 h and 24 h after irradiation. DNA replication is downregulated for 1 h and 3 h after blue light irradiation. Interestingly, 24 h after irradiation DNA replication is slightly upregulated.


Gene expression profiling reveals aryl hydrocarbon receptor as a possible target for photobiomodulation when using blue light
Gene set enrichment analysis-time course of selected pathways for further evaluation of gene expression.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037386&req=5

f4: Gene set enrichment analysis-time course of selected pathways for further evaluation of gene expression.
Mentions: In a next step, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database (Table 1). Pathways containing the highest number of deregulated genes are depicted in Fig. 4. Already 1 h after blue light irradiation genes connected to steroid hormone biosynthesis, metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, chemical carcinogenesis and tryptophan metabolism are upregulated. The number of genes and intensity of upregulation increases for all these pathways with time from 1 h to 3 h and 24 h after irradiation. On the other hand, pathways containing downregulated genes that are reduced already 1 h after irradiation are processes like NF-κB signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway and TGF-β signaling pathway. These pathways are mainly linked to inflammation and infection. For NF-κB signaling pathway and TNF signaling pathway, downregulation increases from 1 h to 3 h, whereas it slightly decreases for T cell receptor signaling pathway and TGF-β signaling pathway. Nevertheless, 24 h after irradiation downregulation is higher for all these pathways when compared to 1 h after irradiation. Although rheumatoid arthritis is slightly upregulated 1 h after irradiation, the pathway is significantly downregulated 3 h and 24 h after irradiation. DNA replication is downregulated for 1 h and 3 h after blue light irradiation. Interestingly, 24 h after irradiation DNA replication is slightly upregulated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Photobiomodulation (PBM) with blue light induces a biphasic dose response curve in proliferation of immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT), with a maximum anti-proliferative effect reached with 30min (41.4 J/cm2). The aim of this study was to test the photobiomodulatory effect of 41.4 J/cm2 blue light irradiation on ROS production, apoptosis and gene expression at different time points after irradiation of HaCaT cells in vitro and assess its safety. ROS concentration was increased 30 min after irradiation. However, already 1 h after irradiation, cells were able to reduce ROS and balance the concentration to a normal level. The sudden increase in ROS did not damage the cells, which was demonstrated with FACS analysis where HaCaT cells did not show any sign of apoptosis after blue light irradiation. Furthermore, a time course could be seen in gene expression analysis after blue light, with an early response of stimulated genes already 1 h after blue light irradiation, leading to the discovery of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor as possible target for blue light irradiation.

No MeSH data available.