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Biocompatibility and biodistribution of functionalized carbon nano-onions (f-CNOs) in a vertebrate model

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Functionalized carbon nano-onions (f-CNOs) are of great interest as platforms for imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic applications due to their high cellular uptake and low cytotoxicity. To date, the toxicological effects of f-CNOs on vertebrates have not been reported. In this study, the possible biological impact of f-CNOs on zebrafish during development is investigated, evaluating different toxicity end-points such as the survival rate, hatching rate, and heart beat rate. Furthermore, a bio-distribution study of boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) functionalized CNOs in zebrafish larvae is performed by utilizing inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (iSPIM), due to its intrinsic capability of allowing for fast 3D imaging. Our in vivo findings indicate that f-CNOs exhibit no toxicity, good biocompatibility (in the concentration range of 5–100 μg mL−1) and a homogenous biodistribution in zebrafish larvae.

No MeSH data available.


Survival rate of zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to different concentrations of benz-CNOs (a) and BODIPY-CNOs (b) and hatching rate of zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to different concentration of benz-CNOs (c) and BODIPY-CNOs (d). Data are calculated as means ± S.D., from three independent experiments, n = 80 (*p ≤ 0.01 compared to the control).
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f2: Survival rate of zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to different concentrations of benz-CNOs (a) and BODIPY-CNOs (b) and hatching rate of zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to different concentration of benz-CNOs (c) and BODIPY-CNOs (d). Data are calculated as means ± S.D., from three independent experiments, n = 80 (*p ≤ 0.01 compared to the control).

Mentions: First, the survival and hatching rates of treated zebrafish embryo/larvae are measured at specified time points. As shown in Fig. 2a,b, up to 10 μg mL−1 of benz-CNOs and BODIPY-CNOs no considerable changes in the survival rate of exposed embryos/larvae are observed in comparison with that of the control groups, whereas a significant difference (p ≤ 0.01) is present at higher concentration of CNOs (50 and 100 μg mL−1) between the 72 and 120 hours post fertilization (hpf). Nevertheless, in the first 24 hpf no dead embryos are observed and at 72 hpf the survival rate is higher than 95% for both types of CNOs.


Biocompatibility and biodistribution of functionalized carbon nano-onions (f-CNOs) in a vertebrate model
Survival rate of zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to different concentrations of benz-CNOs (a) and BODIPY-CNOs (b) and hatching rate of zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to different concentration of benz-CNOs (c) and BODIPY-CNOs (d). Data are calculated as means ± S.D., from three independent experiments, n = 80 (*p ≤ 0.01 compared to the control).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037369&req=5

f2: Survival rate of zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to different concentrations of benz-CNOs (a) and BODIPY-CNOs (b) and hatching rate of zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to different concentration of benz-CNOs (c) and BODIPY-CNOs (d). Data are calculated as means ± S.D., from three independent experiments, n = 80 (*p ≤ 0.01 compared to the control).
Mentions: First, the survival and hatching rates of treated zebrafish embryo/larvae are measured at specified time points. As shown in Fig. 2a,b, up to 10 μg mL−1 of benz-CNOs and BODIPY-CNOs no considerable changes in the survival rate of exposed embryos/larvae are observed in comparison with that of the control groups, whereas a significant difference (p ≤ 0.01) is present at higher concentration of CNOs (50 and 100 μg mL−1) between the 72 and 120 hours post fertilization (hpf). Nevertheless, in the first 24 hpf no dead embryos are observed and at 72 hpf the survival rate is higher than 95% for both types of CNOs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Functionalized carbon nano-onions (f-CNOs) are of great interest as platforms for imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic applications due to their high cellular uptake and low cytotoxicity. To date, the toxicological effects of f-CNOs on vertebrates have not been reported. In this study, the possible biological impact of f-CNOs on zebrafish during development is investigated, evaluating different toxicity end-points such as the survival rate, hatching rate, and heart beat rate. Furthermore, a bio-distribution study of boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) functionalized CNOs in zebrafish larvae is performed by utilizing inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (iSPIM), due to its intrinsic capability of allowing for fast 3D imaging. Our in vivo findings indicate that f-CNOs exhibit no toxicity, good biocompatibility (in the concentration range of 5–100 μg mL−1) and a homogenous biodistribution in zebrafish larvae.

No MeSH data available.