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Plague in Iran: its history and current status

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objectives:: Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran.

Methods:: In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred.

Results:: This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today’s Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa.

Conclusions:: Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Areas affected by plague throughout the history of Iran. Kurdistan, known to be the focus of plague in Iran, has been drawn larger.
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f1-epih-38-e2016033: Areas affected by plague throughout the history of Iran. Kurdistan, known to be the focus of plague in Iran, has been drawn larger.

Mentions: Plague frequently recurred in Iran throughout history, but the dating and characterization of the nature of plague outbreaks remain imprecise. The rapid expansion of plague with high mortality rates may have been related to sparse treatment centers, a poor public health system, the absence of effective quarantine arrangements, washing the dead bodies in rivers before burial, and transferring corpses to sacred places such as Mashhad, Qom, Najaf, and Karbala [26]. Plague epidemics in Iran typically originated from villages or places with poor hygiene, and rural epidemics have been found to last for periods of 30 to 40 years with no officially reported cases [27]. Throughout the course of history, almost all regions of the country, especially near the borders (in the north, south, east, and west) have reported plague outbreaks (Figure 1, Table 1).


Plague in Iran: its history and current status
Areas affected by plague throughout the history of Iran. Kurdistan, known to be the focus of plague in Iran, has been drawn larger.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037359&req=5

f1-epih-38-e2016033: Areas affected by plague throughout the history of Iran. Kurdistan, known to be the focus of plague in Iran, has been drawn larger.
Mentions: Plague frequently recurred in Iran throughout history, but the dating and characterization of the nature of plague outbreaks remain imprecise. The rapid expansion of plague with high mortality rates may have been related to sparse treatment centers, a poor public health system, the absence of effective quarantine arrangements, washing the dead bodies in rivers before burial, and transferring corpses to sacred places such as Mashhad, Qom, Najaf, and Karbala [26]. Plague epidemics in Iran typically originated from villages or places with poor hygiene, and rural epidemics have been found to last for periods of 30 to 40 years with no officially reported cases [27]. Throughout the course of history, almost all regions of the country, especially near the borders (in the north, south, east, and west) have reported plague outbreaks (Figure 1, Table 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objectives:: Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran.

Methods:: In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred.

Results:: This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today’s Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa.

Conclusions:: Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus