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Dietary intakes of citrus fruit and risk of gastric cancer incidence: an adaptive meta-analysis of cohort studies

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objectives:: In the context of supplementary antioxidants having no anticancer effect, it is important to update the meta-analysis to evaluate whether there is an association between intake of citrus fruit and gastric cancer risk.

Methods:: The list of articles to be searched was established using citation discovery tools provided by PubMed and Scopus. The effect size of each article to be used in meta-analysis was calculated using the interval-collapse method. Summary effect size (sES) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained by conducting this meta-analysis. Random effect dose–response meta-regression (DRMR) was performed to investigate the dose–response relationship.

Results:: A total of five cohort studies were selected. The result was 13% reduction of gastric cancer according to the intake of citrus fruit (sES, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.99; I-squared=69.6%). In subgroup analysis, it was found that the intake of citrus fruit inhibited cardia gastric cancer (CGC) (sES, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.81; I-squared=46.1%) and as a result of DRMR, 100 g of citrus fruit intake per day inhibits CGC by 40% (relative risk, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.83).

Conclusions:: It is suggested that the intake of citrus fruit inhibits the development of CGC. This conclusion can be used as a primary prevention measure in the future when the incidence of CGC may be on the rise.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The forest plot of effect size (ES) and its 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random effect model in eight datasets from five cohort studies. M, men; W, women; CGC, cardia gastric cancer; NCGC, non-cardia gastric cancer.
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f2-epih-38-e2016034: The forest plot of effect size (ES) and its 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random effect model in eight datasets from five cohort studies. M, men; W, women; CGC, cardia gastric cancer; NCGC, non-cardia gastric cancer.

Mentions: Figure 2 is a forest plot showing effect size with 95% CI obtained by applying the ICM on aRRs and their corresponding 95% CIs in eight databases from five cohorts based on sex and anatomical region. Gonzalez et al. [16] not only calculated aRRs for the anatomical regions, but also reported an overall aRR pertinent to the total cohort population, so that the relative risks (RRs) for overall gastric cancer were used in the meta-analysis for estimating overall effect. The sES of the eight datasets was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.76 to 0.99; I-squared=69.9%), and citrus fruit intake inhibited gastric cancer development with statistical significance. An Egger’s test was performed because moderate heterogeneity was detected. Small study effects were negligible (coefficient of bias=0.43; p-value=0.89), and bilateral symmetry could be observed in the funnel plot (Figure 3).


Dietary intakes of citrus fruit and risk of gastric cancer incidence: an adaptive meta-analysis of cohort studies
The forest plot of effect size (ES) and its 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random effect model in eight datasets from five cohort studies. M, men; W, women; CGC, cardia gastric cancer; NCGC, non-cardia gastric cancer.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037356&req=5

f2-epih-38-e2016034: The forest plot of effect size (ES) and its 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random effect model in eight datasets from five cohort studies. M, men; W, women; CGC, cardia gastric cancer; NCGC, non-cardia gastric cancer.
Mentions: Figure 2 is a forest plot showing effect size with 95% CI obtained by applying the ICM on aRRs and their corresponding 95% CIs in eight databases from five cohorts based on sex and anatomical region. Gonzalez et al. [16] not only calculated aRRs for the anatomical regions, but also reported an overall aRR pertinent to the total cohort population, so that the relative risks (RRs) for overall gastric cancer were used in the meta-analysis for estimating overall effect. The sES of the eight datasets was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.76 to 0.99; I-squared=69.9%), and citrus fruit intake inhibited gastric cancer development with statistical significance. An Egger’s test was performed because moderate heterogeneity was detected. Small study effects were negligible (coefficient of bias=0.43; p-value=0.89), and bilateral symmetry could be observed in the funnel plot (Figure 3).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objectives:: In the context of supplementary antioxidants having no anticancer effect, it is important to update the meta-analysis to evaluate whether there is an association between intake of citrus fruit and gastric cancer risk.

Methods:: The list of articles to be searched was established using citation discovery tools provided by PubMed and Scopus. The effect size of each article to be used in meta-analysis was calculated using the interval-collapse method. Summary effect size (sES) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained by conducting this meta-analysis. Random effect dose–response meta-regression (DRMR) was performed to investigate the dose–response relationship.

Results:: A total of five cohort studies were selected. The result was 13% reduction of gastric cancer according to the intake of citrus fruit (sES, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.99; I-squared=69.6%). In subgroup analysis, it was found that the intake of citrus fruit inhibited cardia gastric cancer (CGC) (sES, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.81; I-squared=46.1%) and as a result of DRMR, 100 g of citrus fruit intake per day inhibits CGC by 40% (relative risk, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.83).

Conclusions:: It is suggested that the intake of citrus fruit inhibits the development of CGC. This conclusion can be used as a primary prevention measure in the future when the incidence of CGC may be on the rise.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus