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Quantifying Mosaic Development: Towards an Evo-Devo Postmodern Synthesis of the Evolution of Development via Differentiation Trees of Embryos

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ABSTRACT

Embryonic development proceeds through a series of differentiation events. The mosaic version of this process (binary cell divisions) can be analyzed by comparing early development of Cionaintestinalis and Caenorhabditis elegans. To do this, we reorganize lineage trees into differentiation trees using the graph theory ordering of relative cell volume. Lineage and differentiation trees provide us with means to classify each cell using binary codes. Extracting data characterizing lineage tree position, cell volume, and nucleus position for each cell during early embryogenesis, we conduct several statistical analyses, both within and between taxa. We compare both cell volume distributions and cell volume across developmental time within and between single species and assess differences between lineage tree and differentiation tree orderings. This enhances our understanding of the differentiation events in a model of pure mosaic embryogenesis and its relationship to evolutionary conservation. We also contribute several new techniques for assessing both differences between lineage trees and differentiation trees, and differences between differentiation trees of different species. The results suggest that at the level of differentiation trees, there are broad similarities between distantly related mosaic embryos that might be essential to understanding evolutionary change and phylogeny reconstruction. Differentiation trees may therefore provide a basis for an Evo-Devo Postmodern Synthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Comparison of cell volume versus lineage depth for Ciona. The graph includes 382 cells from the two-cell stage to the 112-cell stage. Lineage depth is determined by the number of division events from the one-cell stage (depth of 0).
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biology-05-00033-f007: Comparison of cell volume versus lineage depth for Ciona. The graph includes 382 cells from the two-cell stage to the 112-cell stage. Lineage depth is determined by the number of division events from the one-cell stage (depth of 0).

Mentions: Comparisons between cell volume and lineage depth are shown for Ciona in Figure 7 and C. elegans in Figure 8. In Ciona, the relationship between lineage depth and cell volume can be fitted to a power function (see Methods, Section 2.8), R2 = 0.60, p < 0.001. An identical bivariate comparison in C. elegans yields a linear regression of similar strength (R2 = 0.56, p < 0.001). In both cases, we can see that overall, cell volume decreases as lineage depth increases, but it is noteworthy that the curve is nonlinear for Ciona (Figure 7) while linear for C. elegans (Figure 8). This is consistent with the decrease in volume over developmental time that was shown in Figure 5 (Ciona) and Figure 6 (C. elegans).


Quantifying Mosaic Development: Towards an Evo-Devo Postmodern Synthesis of the Evolution of Development via Differentiation Trees of Embryos
Comparison of cell volume versus lineage depth for Ciona. The graph includes 382 cells from the two-cell stage to the 112-cell stage. Lineage depth is determined by the number of division events from the one-cell stage (depth of 0).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037352&req=5

biology-05-00033-f007: Comparison of cell volume versus lineage depth for Ciona. The graph includes 382 cells from the two-cell stage to the 112-cell stage. Lineage depth is determined by the number of division events from the one-cell stage (depth of 0).
Mentions: Comparisons between cell volume and lineage depth are shown for Ciona in Figure 7 and C. elegans in Figure 8. In Ciona, the relationship between lineage depth and cell volume can be fitted to a power function (see Methods, Section 2.8), R2 = 0.60, p < 0.001. An identical bivariate comparison in C. elegans yields a linear regression of similar strength (R2 = 0.56, p < 0.001). In both cases, we can see that overall, cell volume decreases as lineage depth increases, but it is noteworthy that the curve is nonlinear for Ciona (Figure 7) while linear for C. elegans (Figure 8). This is consistent with the decrease in volume over developmental time that was shown in Figure 5 (Ciona) and Figure 6 (C. elegans).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Embryonic development proceeds through a series of differentiation events. The mosaic version of this process (binary cell divisions) can be analyzed by comparing early development of Cionaintestinalis and Caenorhabditis elegans. To do this, we reorganize lineage trees into differentiation trees using the graph theory ordering of relative cell volume. Lineage and differentiation trees provide us with means to classify each cell using binary codes. Extracting data characterizing lineage tree position, cell volume, and nucleus position for each cell during early embryogenesis, we conduct several statistical analyses, both within and between taxa. We compare both cell volume distributions and cell volume across developmental time within and between single species and assess differences between lineage tree and differentiation tree orderings. This enhances our understanding of the differentiation events in a model of pure mosaic embryogenesis and its relationship to evolutionary conservation. We also contribute several new techniques for assessing both differences between lineage trees and differentiation trees, and differences between differentiation trees of different species. The results suggest that at the level of differentiation trees, there are broad similarities between distantly related mosaic embryos that might be essential to understanding evolutionary change and phylogeny reconstruction. Differentiation trees may therefore provide a basis for an Evo-Devo Postmodern Synthesis.

No MeSH data available.