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Quantifying Mosaic Development: Towards an Evo-Devo Postmodern Synthesis of the Evolution of Development via Differentiation Trees of Embryos

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ABSTRACT

Embryonic development proceeds through a series of differentiation events. The mosaic version of this process (binary cell divisions) can be analyzed by comparing early development of Cionaintestinalis and Caenorhabditis elegans. To do this, we reorganize lineage trees into differentiation trees using the graph theory ordering of relative cell volume. Lineage and differentiation trees provide us with means to classify each cell using binary codes. Extracting data characterizing lineage tree position, cell volume, and nucleus position for each cell during early embryogenesis, we conduct several statistical analyses, both within and between taxa. We compare both cell volume distributions and cell volume across developmental time within and between single species and assess differences between lineage tree and differentiation tree orderings. This enhances our understanding of the differentiation events in a model of pure mosaic embryogenesis and its relationship to evolutionary conservation. We also contribute several new techniques for assessing both differences between lineage trees and differentiation trees, and differences between differentiation trees of different species. The results suggest that at the level of differentiation trees, there are broad similarities between distantly related mosaic embryos that might be essential to understanding evolutionary change and phylogeny reconstruction. Differentiation trees may therefore provide a basis for an Evo-Devo Postmodern Synthesis.

No MeSH data available.


An analysis of cell volume versus lifetime in Ciona, based on all cells between the one-cell stage and the 112-cell stage (N = 224). Cell volume is normalized as a percentage of total embryo volume, and lifetime is the duration of the period of time between a cell’s creation via division and its division into two daughter cells. Trendline (black) is based on a power function.
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biology-05-00033-f005: An analysis of cell volume versus lifetime in Ciona, based on all cells between the one-cell stage and the 112-cell stage (N = 224). Cell volume is normalized as a percentage of total embryo volume, and lifetime is the duration of the period of time between a cell’s creation via division and its division into two daughter cells. Trendline (black) is based on a power function.

Mentions: An analysis of cell volume in the context of development is shown in Figure 5 (for Ciona) and Figure 6 (for C. elegans). The baseline division time (0 min) is calculated relative to the time of fertilization in Ciona, and the beginning of the two-cell stage in C. elegans. The source of data for Figure 5 and Figure 6 are identical to those of Figure 3 and Figure 4, respectively. Figure 6 is also based on timing information published by Bao et al. [42]. Using a regression analysis, the comparison between cell volume and division timing yields nonlinear and linear relationships for Ciona and C. elegans, respectively. Figure 5 reveals a moderately strong power function (see Methods, Section 2.8) for Ciona (R2 = 0.70, p < 0.001), while Figure 6 yields a much stronger relationship for C. elegans (R2 = 0.97, p < 0.001). While there are more outliers in the Ciona example, this could be due to a number of technical factors such as more precise temporal measurements for the C. elegans example and differences in how the volume measurement is approximated between these species.


Quantifying Mosaic Development: Towards an Evo-Devo Postmodern Synthesis of the Evolution of Development via Differentiation Trees of Embryos
An analysis of cell volume versus lifetime in Ciona, based on all cells between the one-cell stage and the 112-cell stage (N = 224). Cell volume is normalized as a percentage of total embryo volume, and lifetime is the duration of the period of time between a cell’s creation via division and its division into two daughter cells. Trendline (black) is based on a power function.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037352&req=5

biology-05-00033-f005: An analysis of cell volume versus lifetime in Ciona, based on all cells between the one-cell stage and the 112-cell stage (N = 224). Cell volume is normalized as a percentage of total embryo volume, and lifetime is the duration of the period of time between a cell’s creation via division and its division into two daughter cells. Trendline (black) is based on a power function.
Mentions: An analysis of cell volume in the context of development is shown in Figure 5 (for Ciona) and Figure 6 (for C. elegans). The baseline division time (0 min) is calculated relative to the time of fertilization in Ciona, and the beginning of the two-cell stage in C. elegans. The source of data for Figure 5 and Figure 6 are identical to those of Figure 3 and Figure 4, respectively. Figure 6 is also based on timing information published by Bao et al. [42]. Using a regression analysis, the comparison between cell volume and division timing yields nonlinear and linear relationships for Ciona and C. elegans, respectively. Figure 5 reveals a moderately strong power function (see Methods, Section 2.8) for Ciona (R2 = 0.70, p < 0.001), while Figure 6 yields a much stronger relationship for C. elegans (R2 = 0.97, p < 0.001). While there are more outliers in the Ciona example, this could be due to a number of technical factors such as more precise temporal measurements for the C. elegans example and differences in how the volume measurement is approximated between these species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Embryonic development proceeds through a series of differentiation events. The mosaic version of this process (binary cell divisions) can be analyzed by comparing early development of Cionaintestinalis and Caenorhabditis elegans. To do this, we reorganize lineage trees into differentiation trees using the graph theory ordering of relative cell volume. Lineage and differentiation trees provide us with means to classify each cell using binary codes. Extracting data characterizing lineage tree position, cell volume, and nucleus position for each cell during early embryogenesis, we conduct several statistical analyses, both within and between taxa. We compare both cell volume distributions and cell volume across developmental time within and between single species and assess differences between lineage tree and differentiation tree orderings. This enhances our understanding of the differentiation events in a model of pure mosaic embryogenesis and its relationship to evolutionary conservation. We also contribute several new techniques for assessing both differences between lineage trees and differentiation trees, and differences between differentiation trees of different species. The results suggest that at the level of differentiation trees, there are broad similarities between distantly related mosaic embryos that might be essential to understanding evolutionary change and phylogeny reconstruction. Differentiation trees may therefore provide a basis for an Evo-Devo Postmodern Synthesis.

No MeSH data available.