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Quantifying Mosaic Development: Towards an Evo-Devo Postmodern Synthesis of the Evolution of Development via Differentiation Trees of Embryos

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ABSTRACT

Embryonic development proceeds through a series of differentiation events. The mosaic version of this process (binary cell divisions) can be analyzed by comparing early development of Cionaintestinalis and Caenorhabditis elegans. To do this, we reorganize lineage trees into differentiation trees using the graph theory ordering of relative cell volume. Lineage and differentiation trees provide us with means to classify each cell using binary codes. Extracting data characterizing lineage tree position, cell volume, and nucleus position for each cell during early embryogenesis, we conduct several statistical analyses, both within and between taxa. We compare both cell volume distributions and cell volume across developmental time within and between single species and assess differences between lineage tree and differentiation tree orderings. This enhances our understanding of the differentiation events in a model of pure mosaic embryogenesis and its relationship to evolutionary conservation. We also contribute several new techniques for assessing both differences between lineage trees and differentiation trees, and differences between differentiation trees of different species. The results suggest that at the level of differentiation trees, there are broad similarities between distantly related mosaic embryos that might be essential to understanding evolutionary change and phylogeny reconstruction. Differentiation trees may therefore provide a basis for an Evo-Devo Postmodern Synthesis.

No MeSH data available.


The log-linear relationship between cell volume (log10 of cell volume in µm3) and the cell lifetime (linear) of individual cells for Ciona embryo (raised at 18–20 °C) based on all cells between the one-cell stage and the 112-cell stage (N = 225). Cell volume is normalized as a percentage of total embryo volume. Some data points are overlapping, and are divided into two categories. (A) Blue dots (n = 209), x-axis interval 10.5–70.5 min; (B) red dots (n = 16), x-axis intervals 72–103.5 min. The mean value for category A is 0.20, and the mean value for category B is 0.19, shown on the graph as two horizontal gray lines.
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biology-05-00033-f003: The log-linear relationship between cell volume (log10 of cell volume in µm3) and the cell lifetime (linear) of individual cells for Ciona embryo (raised at 18–20 °C) based on all cells between the one-cell stage and the 112-cell stage (N = 225). Cell volume is normalized as a percentage of total embryo volume. Some data points are overlapping, and are divided into two categories. (A) Blue dots (n = 209), x-axis interval 10.5–70.5 min; (B) red dots (n = 16), x-axis intervals 72–103.5 min. The mean value for category A is 0.20, and the mean value for category B is 0.19, shown on the graph as two horizontal gray lines.

Mentions: Initially, we will examine the relationship between cell volume and the cell lifetime of that cell, and test the hypothesis that smaller cells have longer cell lifetimes than larger cells. The relative cell volume versus cell lifetime data for Figure 3 was extracted from the core secondary data for Ciona (see Methods), while Figure 4 was assembled from the core secondary data for C. elegans (see Methods) and an additional dataset provided in [42]. These data sets represent the first 180–300 min into Ciona embryogenesis, and the first 200 min of embryogenesis in C. elegans, respectively.


Quantifying Mosaic Development: Towards an Evo-Devo Postmodern Synthesis of the Evolution of Development via Differentiation Trees of Embryos
The log-linear relationship between cell volume (log10 of cell volume in µm3) and the cell lifetime (linear) of individual cells for Ciona embryo (raised at 18–20 °C) based on all cells between the one-cell stage and the 112-cell stage (N = 225). Cell volume is normalized as a percentage of total embryo volume. Some data points are overlapping, and are divided into two categories. (A) Blue dots (n = 209), x-axis interval 10.5–70.5 min; (B) red dots (n = 16), x-axis intervals 72–103.5 min. The mean value for category A is 0.20, and the mean value for category B is 0.19, shown on the graph as two horizontal gray lines.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037352&req=5

biology-05-00033-f003: The log-linear relationship between cell volume (log10 of cell volume in µm3) and the cell lifetime (linear) of individual cells for Ciona embryo (raised at 18–20 °C) based on all cells between the one-cell stage and the 112-cell stage (N = 225). Cell volume is normalized as a percentage of total embryo volume. Some data points are overlapping, and are divided into two categories. (A) Blue dots (n = 209), x-axis interval 10.5–70.5 min; (B) red dots (n = 16), x-axis intervals 72–103.5 min. The mean value for category A is 0.20, and the mean value for category B is 0.19, shown on the graph as two horizontal gray lines.
Mentions: Initially, we will examine the relationship between cell volume and the cell lifetime of that cell, and test the hypothesis that smaller cells have longer cell lifetimes than larger cells. The relative cell volume versus cell lifetime data for Figure 3 was extracted from the core secondary data for Ciona (see Methods), while Figure 4 was assembled from the core secondary data for C. elegans (see Methods) and an additional dataset provided in [42]. These data sets represent the first 180–300 min into Ciona embryogenesis, and the first 200 min of embryogenesis in C. elegans, respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Embryonic development proceeds through a series of differentiation events. The mosaic version of this process (binary cell divisions) can be analyzed by comparing early development of Cionaintestinalis and Caenorhabditis elegans. To do this, we reorganize lineage trees into differentiation trees using the graph theory ordering of relative cell volume. Lineage and differentiation trees provide us with means to classify each cell using binary codes. Extracting data characterizing lineage tree position, cell volume, and nucleus position for each cell during early embryogenesis, we conduct several statistical analyses, both within and between taxa. We compare both cell volume distributions and cell volume across developmental time within and between single species and assess differences between lineage tree and differentiation tree orderings. This enhances our understanding of the differentiation events in a model of pure mosaic embryogenesis and its relationship to evolutionary conservation. We also contribute several new techniques for assessing both differences between lineage trees and differentiation trees, and differences between differentiation trees of different species. The results suggest that at the level of differentiation trees, there are broad similarities between distantly related mosaic embryos that might be essential to understanding evolutionary change and phylogeny reconstruction. Differentiation trees may therefore provide a basis for an Evo-Devo Postmodern Synthesis.

No MeSH data available.