Limits...
Establishment of hydrochloric acid/lipopolysaccharide-induced pelvic inflammatory disease model

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is one of the most problematic complications experienced by women with sexually transmitted diseases, frequently causes secondary infections after reproductive abnormalities in veterinary animals. Although the uterus is self-protective, it becomes fragile during periods or pregnancy. To investigate PID, bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from gram negative bacteria has been used to induce the disease in several animal models. However, when LPS is applied to the peritoneum, it often causes systemic sepsis leading to death and the PID was not consistently demonstrated. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been used to induce inflammation in the lungs and stomach but not tested for reproductive organs. In this study, we developed a PID model in mice by HCl and LPS sequential intracervical (i.c.) administration. The proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, were detected in the mouse uterus by western blot analysis and cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after HCl (25 mg/kg) administration i.c. followed by four LPS (50 mg/kg) treatments. Moreover, mice exhibited increased infiltration of neutrophils in the endometrium and epithelial layer. These results suggest that ic co-administration of HCl and LPS induces PID in mice. This new model may provide a consistent and reproducible PID model for future research.

No MeSH data available.


Mean value of clinical sign scoring. ***Significantly more serious clinical signs in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneal administered animals compared with LPS or hydrochloric acid (HCl)-LPS intracervical (i.c.) administered animals (p < 0.001).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037311&req=5

Figure 1: Mean value of clinical sign scoring. ***Significantly more serious clinical signs in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneal administered animals compared with LPS or hydrochloric acid (HCl)-LPS intracervical (i.c.) administered animals (p < 0.001).

Mentions: The most commonly observed clinical signs were a hunched posture with ruffled hair and closed eyes. Clinical signs were observed in the LPS25ip and LPS50ip group as early as 2 hpi, peaked at 6 hpi and decreased between 8 and 10 hpi. HCl-LPS50 and HCl-LPS25 groups started to show clinical signs at 6 hpi HCl and LPS inoculation, and were quickly in remission between 8 and 10 hpi. LPS25ic, LPS50ic and HCl25 groups did not exhibit severe clinical signs. The mean scores of clinical signs were significantly higher in LPS50ip and LPS25ip groups (p < 0.001) than other groups. The mean scores of clinical signs in LPS50ic, LPS25ic and HCl25 groups were not significantly different between the groups (Fig. 1).


Establishment of hydrochloric acid/lipopolysaccharide-induced pelvic inflammatory disease model
Mean value of clinical sign scoring. ***Significantly more serious clinical signs in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneal administered animals compared with LPS or hydrochloric acid (HCl)-LPS intracervical (i.c.) administered animals (p < 0.001).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037311&req=5

Figure 1: Mean value of clinical sign scoring. ***Significantly more serious clinical signs in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneal administered animals compared with LPS or hydrochloric acid (HCl)-LPS intracervical (i.c.) administered animals (p < 0.001).
Mentions: The most commonly observed clinical signs were a hunched posture with ruffled hair and closed eyes. Clinical signs were observed in the LPS25ip and LPS50ip group as early as 2 hpi, peaked at 6 hpi and decreased between 8 and 10 hpi. HCl-LPS50 and HCl-LPS25 groups started to show clinical signs at 6 hpi HCl and LPS inoculation, and were quickly in remission between 8 and 10 hpi. LPS25ic, LPS50ic and HCl25 groups did not exhibit severe clinical signs. The mean scores of clinical signs were significantly higher in LPS50ip and LPS25ip groups (p < 0.001) than other groups. The mean scores of clinical signs in LPS50ic, LPS25ic and HCl25 groups were not significantly different between the groups (Fig. 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is one of the most problematic complications experienced by women with sexually transmitted diseases, frequently causes secondary infections after reproductive abnormalities in veterinary animals. Although the uterus is self-protective, it becomes fragile during periods or pregnancy. To investigate PID, bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from gram negative bacteria has been used to induce the disease in several animal models. However, when LPS is applied to the peritoneum, it often causes systemic sepsis leading to death and the PID was not consistently demonstrated. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been used to induce inflammation in the lungs and stomach but not tested for reproductive organs. In this study, we developed a PID model in mice by HCl and LPS sequential intracervical (i.c.) administration. The proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1&beta;, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-&alpha;, were detected in the mouse uterus by western blot analysis and cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after HCl (25 mg/kg) administration i.c. followed by four LPS (50 mg/kg) treatments. Moreover, mice exhibited increased infiltration of neutrophils in the endometrium and epithelial layer. These results suggest that ic co-administration of HCl and LPS induces PID in mice. This new model may provide a consistent and reproducible PID model for future research.

No MeSH data available.