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Molecular characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 viruses isolated from Baikal teals found dead during a 2014 outbreak in Korea

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ABSTRACT

Nineteen highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 viruses were isolated from wild birds in the Donglim reservoir in Gochang, Jeonbuk province, Korea, which was first reported to be an outbreak site on January 17, 2014. Most genes from the nineteen viruses shared high nucleotide sequence identities (i.e., 99.7% to 100%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses were reassortants of the HPAI H5 subtype and the H4N2 strain and that their hemagglutinin clade was 2.3.4.4, which originated from Eastern China. The hemagglutinin protein contained Q222 and G224 at the receptor-binding site. Although the neuraminidase protein contained I314V and the matrix 2 protein contained an S31N substitution, other mutations resulting in oseltamivir and amantadine resistance were not detected. No substitutions associated with increased virulence and enhanced transmission in mammals were detected in the polymerase basic protein 2 (627E and 701D). Non-structural-1 was 237 amino acids long and had an ESEV motif with additional RGNKMAD amino acids in the C terminal region. These viruses caused deaths in the Baikal teal, which was unusual, and outbreaks occurred at the same time in both poultry and wild birds. These data are helpful for epidemiological understanding of HPAI and the design of prevention strategies.

No MeSH data available.


Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree for the H5 gene (nucleotide positions: 49–1649). The black circle (●) indicates the genes of isolates from this study. The percentages of replicate trees in which the associated taxa clustered together in the bootstrap test (1,000 replicates) are shown next to the branches.
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Figure 2: Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree for the H5 gene (nucleotide positions: 49–1649). The black circle (●) indicates the genes of isolates from this study. The percentages of replicate trees in which the associated taxa clustered together in the bootstrap test (1,000 replicates) are shown next to the branches.

Mentions: Phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes indicated these viruses belonged to H5 clade 2.3.4.4. (Fig. 2). The HA genes of the viral isolates in this study were located in the same cluster as the H5 Eastern China isolates, such as A/wild duck/Shandong/628/2011 (H5N1). These HA genes also formed a branch with other Korean H5N8 isolates available in GenBank: A/breeder duck/Korea/Gochang1/2014 (Gochang1), A/broiler duck/ Korea/Buan2/2014 (Buan2), and A/baikal teal/Korea/Donglim3/ 2014 (Donglim3). The HA genes had 99.6% similarity to those in Buan2 and Donglim3 and 96.4% to 96.6% similarity with Gochang1 (GenBank accession No. KJ413831–413838). The NA genes were 99.8% similar to those in Buan2 and Donglim3 and had 97.8% to 97.9% similarity with those in the Gochang1 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of the NA genes indicated that these viruses belonged to the N8 subtype of the Eurasian lineage, and they clustered with the H3N8 isolates (Fig. 3). Phylogenetic analysis of the six internal genes indicated that these 19 strains were reassortant viruses with genes derived from H5N2, H4N2, H5N5 and H5N8 viruses from eastern China.


Molecular characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 viruses isolated from Baikal teals found dead during a 2014 outbreak in Korea
Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree for the H5 gene (nucleotide positions: 49–1649). The black circle (●) indicates the genes of isolates from this study. The percentages of replicate trees in which the associated taxa clustered together in the bootstrap test (1,000 replicates) are shown next to the branches.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037296&req=5

Figure 2: Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree for the H5 gene (nucleotide positions: 49–1649). The black circle (●) indicates the genes of isolates from this study. The percentages of replicate trees in which the associated taxa clustered together in the bootstrap test (1,000 replicates) are shown next to the branches.
Mentions: Phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes indicated these viruses belonged to H5 clade 2.3.4.4. (Fig. 2). The HA genes of the viral isolates in this study were located in the same cluster as the H5 Eastern China isolates, such as A/wild duck/Shandong/628/2011 (H5N1). These HA genes also formed a branch with other Korean H5N8 isolates available in GenBank: A/breeder duck/Korea/Gochang1/2014 (Gochang1), A/broiler duck/ Korea/Buan2/2014 (Buan2), and A/baikal teal/Korea/Donglim3/ 2014 (Donglim3). The HA genes had 99.6% similarity to those in Buan2 and Donglim3 and 96.4% to 96.6% similarity with Gochang1 (GenBank accession No. KJ413831–413838). The NA genes were 99.8% similar to those in Buan2 and Donglim3 and had 97.8% to 97.9% similarity with those in the Gochang1 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of the NA genes indicated that these viruses belonged to the N8 subtype of the Eurasian lineage, and they clustered with the H3N8 isolates (Fig. 3). Phylogenetic analysis of the six internal genes indicated that these 19 strains were reassortant viruses with genes derived from H5N2, H4N2, H5N5 and H5N8 viruses from eastern China.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Nineteen highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 viruses were isolated from wild birds in the Donglim reservoir in Gochang, Jeonbuk province, Korea, which was first reported to be an outbreak site on January 17, 2014. Most genes from the nineteen viruses shared high nucleotide sequence identities (i.e., 99.7% to 100%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses were reassortants of the HPAI H5 subtype and the H4N2 strain and that their hemagglutinin clade was 2.3.4.4, which originated from Eastern China. The hemagglutinin protein contained Q222 and G224 at the receptor-binding site. Although the neuraminidase protein contained I314V and the matrix 2 protein contained an S31N substitution, other mutations resulting in oseltamivir and amantadine resistance were not detected. No substitutions associated with increased virulence and enhanced transmission in mammals were detected in the polymerase basic protein 2 (627E and 701D). Non-structural-1 was 237 amino acids long and had an ESEV motif with additional RGNKMAD amino acids in the C terminal region. These viruses caused deaths in the Baikal teal, which was unusual, and outbreaks occurred at the same time in both poultry and wild birds. These data are helpful for epidemiological understanding of HPAI and the design of prevention strategies.

No MeSH data available.