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Resolving spatiotemporal characteristics of the seasonal hypoxia cycle in shallow estuarine environments of the Severn River and South River, MD, Chesapeake Bay, USA

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The nature of emerging patterns concerning water quality stressors and the evolution of hypoxia within sub-estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay has been an important unresolved question among the Chesapeake Bay community. Elucidation of the nature of hypoxia in the tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay has important ramifications to the successful restoration of the Bay, since much of Bay states population lives within the watersheds of the tributaries. Very little to date, is known about the small sub-estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay due to limited resources and the difficulties in resolving both space and time dimensions on scales that are adequate to resolve this question. We resolve the spatio-temporal domain dilemma by setting up an intense monitoring program of water quality stressors in the Severn and South Rivers, MD. Volume rendered models were constructed to allow for a visual dissection of the water quality times series which illustrates the life cycle of hypoxia and anoxia at the mid to upper portions of the tidal tributaries. The model also shows that unlike their larger Virginian tributary counterparts, there is little to no evidence of severe hypoxic water intrusions from the main-stem of the Chesapeake Bay into these sub-estuaries.

No MeSH data available.


Spatiotemporal model of temperature in the Severn River 2010.
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fig0045: Spatiotemporal model of temperature in the Severn River 2010.

Mentions: Since both temperature and salinity could cause dissolved oxygen deficits, the life cycle of these parameters were examined. The water column in the Severn River begins to heat significantly in the late spring around Julian week 22 or the last week of May. Temperatures tend to be cooler near the mouth of the river and much warmer near the headwaters, which is typical for estuarine systems during this time of the year [58]. During the 2010 season, temperatures rose to 29 °C and above in Round Bay between Julian weeks 29 and 33. The Severn River appears to be well mixed with respect to temperature at the mouth with growing stratification in the middle and upper reaches. Thermocline depths in the middle and upper parts of the river are between 3 to 5 meters, and lower at the headwaters. Maximum surface temperatures approached 31 °C in mid-July, while typical bottom temperatures were around 24 °C. Temperatures decrease down to approximately 25 °C by mid-September as mixing due to increasing storm intensity eroding the thermocline. Fourteen percent of the spatiotemporal volume lies at or above the 29 °C isosurface for the Severn River during 2010 (Fig. 9), while 10 percent of the spatiotemporal volume was below 24 °C. In 2011, the Severn River displayed a 10 percent decrease in the spatiotemporal volume at or above the 29 °C isosurface.


Resolving spatiotemporal characteristics of the seasonal hypoxia cycle in shallow estuarine environments of the Severn River and South River, MD, Chesapeake Bay, USA
Spatiotemporal model of temperature in the Severn River 2010.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037264&req=5

fig0045: Spatiotemporal model of temperature in the Severn River 2010.
Mentions: Since both temperature and salinity could cause dissolved oxygen deficits, the life cycle of these parameters were examined. The water column in the Severn River begins to heat significantly in the late spring around Julian week 22 or the last week of May. Temperatures tend to be cooler near the mouth of the river and much warmer near the headwaters, which is typical for estuarine systems during this time of the year [58]. During the 2010 season, temperatures rose to 29 °C and above in Round Bay between Julian weeks 29 and 33. The Severn River appears to be well mixed with respect to temperature at the mouth with growing stratification in the middle and upper reaches. Thermocline depths in the middle and upper parts of the river are between 3 to 5 meters, and lower at the headwaters. Maximum surface temperatures approached 31 °C in mid-July, while typical bottom temperatures were around 24 °C. Temperatures decrease down to approximately 25 °C by mid-September as mixing due to increasing storm intensity eroding the thermocline. Fourteen percent of the spatiotemporal volume lies at or above the 29 °C isosurface for the Severn River during 2010 (Fig. 9), while 10 percent of the spatiotemporal volume was below 24 °C. In 2011, the Severn River displayed a 10 percent decrease in the spatiotemporal volume at or above the 29 °C isosurface.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The nature of emerging patterns concerning water quality stressors and the evolution of hypoxia within sub-estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay has been an important unresolved question among the Chesapeake Bay community. Elucidation of the nature of hypoxia in the tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay has important ramifications to the successful restoration of the Bay, since much of Bay states population lives within the watersheds of the tributaries. Very little to date, is known about the small sub-estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay due to limited resources and the difficulties in resolving both space and time dimensions on scales that are adequate to resolve this question. We resolve the spatio-temporal domain dilemma by setting up an intense monitoring program of water quality stressors in the Severn and South Rivers, MD. Volume rendered models were constructed to allow for a visual dissection of the water quality times series which illustrates the life cycle of hypoxia and anoxia at the mid to upper portions of the tidal tributaries. The model also shows that unlike their larger Virginian tributary counterparts, there is little to no evidence of severe hypoxic water intrusions from the main-stem of the Chesapeake Bay into these sub-estuaries.

No MeSH data available.