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Resolving spatiotemporal characteristics of the seasonal hypoxia cycle in shallow estuarine environments of the Severn River and South River, MD, Chesapeake Bay, USA

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The nature of emerging patterns concerning water quality stressors and the evolution of hypoxia within sub-estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay has been an important unresolved question among the Chesapeake Bay community. Elucidation of the nature of hypoxia in the tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay has important ramifications to the successful restoration of the Bay, since much of Bay states population lives within the watersheds of the tributaries. Very little to date, is known about the small sub-estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay due to limited resources and the difficulties in resolving both space and time dimensions on scales that are adequate to resolve this question. We resolve the spatio-temporal domain dilemma by setting up an intense monitoring program of water quality stressors in the Severn and South Rivers, MD. Volume rendered models were constructed to allow for a visual dissection of the water quality times series which illustrates the life cycle of hypoxia and anoxia at the mid to upper portions of the tidal tributaries. The model also shows that unlike their larger Virginian tributary counterparts, there is little to no evidence of severe hypoxic water intrusions from the main-stem of the Chesapeake Bay into these sub-estuaries.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Sample model construction for volume rendering. The X- axis is the normalized distance from the mouth of the river, Y represents time in Julian weeks and z is the depth. Circles represent location of actual samples, and the mesh is the average bathymetry of the river.
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fig0015: Sample model construction for volume rendering. The X- axis is the normalized distance from the mouth of the river, Y represents time in Julian weeks and z is the depth. Circles represent location of actual samples, and the mesh is the average bathymetry of the river.

Mentions: Volume rendered models of hypoxia, temperature, salinity and Chl-a (Chlorophyll-a), were constructed using the commercial product Voxler 3.0 from Golden software [46]. In all the models presented in this paper, the X-axis represents time in Julian weeks, while the Y-axis is the normalized distance in km from the mouth of estuary taken at either station SRO (Severn River), or MS1 (South River). Julian week 1 is the first week in January, while Julian week 52 is the last week in December of a given year. Depth in meters is represented by the Z-axis, which is rotated to yield positive values from the surface down to the bottom. Bathymetry for each estuary was based on average depths measured at each station. Station depths were then gridded using an inverse distance isotropic second order scheme, and simulated as a height field for each river (Fig. 3). Each data file used to generate a particular volume rendered model had a minimum of 1000 rows. Input parameters such as distance, Julian week, depth, and concentration (dissolved oxygen) were first gridded using an inverse distance isotropic scheme to the second power. All volume rendered models used the 3-D texture method with 400 slices. Alpha blending was used for compositing and a trilinear scheme was employed for sampling. The opacity is then set for each individual model to display the features of interest [47]. In this cast, we are able to examine water quality slices with time through the estuary in order to reveal space-time patterns of physicochemical parameters such as dissolved oxygen, salinity, and temperature.


Resolving spatiotemporal characteristics of the seasonal hypoxia cycle in shallow estuarine environments of the Severn River and South River, MD, Chesapeake Bay, USA
Sample model construction for volume rendering. The X- axis is the normalized distance from the mouth of the river, Y represents time in Julian weeks and z is the depth. Circles represent location of actual samples, and the mesh is the average bathymetry of the river.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037264&req=5

fig0015: Sample model construction for volume rendering. The X- axis is the normalized distance from the mouth of the river, Y represents time in Julian weeks and z is the depth. Circles represent location of actual samples, and the mesh is the average bathymetry of the river.
Mentions: Volume rendered models of hypoxia, temperature, salinity and Chl-a (Chlorophyll-a), were constructed using the commercial product Voxler 3.0 from Golden software [46]. In all the models presented in this paper, the X-axis represents time in Julian weeks, while the Y-axis is the normalized distance in km from the mouth of estuary taken at either station SRO (Severn River), or MS1 (South River). Julian week 1 is the first week in January, while Julian week 52 is the last week in December of a given year. Depth in meters is represented by the Z-axis, which is rotated to yield positive values from the surface down to the bottom. Bathymetry for each estuary was based on average depths measured at each station. Station depths were then gridded using an inverse distance isotropic second order scheme, and simulated as a height field for each river (Fig. 3). Each data file used to generate a particular volume rendered model had a minimum of 1000 rows. Input parameters such as distance, Julian week, depth, and concentration (dissolved oxygen) were first gridded using an inverse distance isotropic scheme to the second power. All volume rendered models used the 3-D texture method with 400 slices. Alpha blending was used for compositing and a trilinear scheme was employed for sampling. The opacity is then set for each individual model to display the features of interest [47]. In this cast, we are able to examine water quality slices with time through the estuary in order to reveal space-time patterns of physicochemical parameters such as dissolved oxygen, salinity, and temperature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The nature of emerging patterns concerning water quality stressors and the evolution of hypoxia within sub-estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay has been an important unresolved question among the Chesapeake Bay community. Elucidation of the nature of hypoxia in the tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay has important ramifications to the successful restoration of the Bay, since much of Bay states population lives within the watersheds of the tributaries. Very little to date, is known about the small sub-estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay due to limited resources and the difficulties in resolving both space and time dimensions on scales that are adequate to resolve this question. We resolve the spatio-temporal domain dilemma by setting up an intense monitoring program of water quality stressors in the Severn and South Rivers, MD. Volume rendered models were constructed to allow for a visual dissection of the water quality times series which illustrates the life cycle of hypoxia and anoxia at the mid to upper portions of the tidal tributaries. The model also shows that unlike their larger Virginian tributary counterparts, there is little to no evidence of severe hypoxic water intrusions from the main-stem of the Chesapeake Bay into these sub-estuaries.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus