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Resolving spatiotemporal characteristics of the seasonal hypoxia cycle in shallow estuarine environments of the Severn River and South River, MD, Chesapeake Bay, USA

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The nature of emerging patterns concerning water quality stressors and the evolution of hypoxia within sub-estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay has been an important unresolved question among the Chesapeake Bay community. Elucidation of the nature of hypoxia in the tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay has important ramifications to the successful restoration of the Bay, since much of Bay states population lives within the watersheds of the tributaries. Very little to date, is known about the small sub-estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay due to limited resources and the difficulties in resolving both space and time dimensions on scales that are adequate to resolve this question. We resolve the spatio-temporal domain dilemma by setting up an intense monitoring program of water quality stressors in the Severn and South Rivers, MD. Volume rendered models were constructed to allow for a visual dissection of the water quality times series which illustrates the life cycle of hypoxia and anoxia at the mid to upper portions of the tidal tributaries. The model also shows that unlike their larger Virginian tributary counterparts, there is little to no evidence of severe hypoxic water intrusions from the main-stem of the Chesapeake Bay into these sub-estuaries.

No MeSH data available.


Sample locations in the Severn and South Rivers, MD.
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fig0010: Sample locations in the Severn and South Rivers, MD.

Mentions: A detailed monitoring program in both the spatial and temporal dimensions was first developed for each estuary. In the Severn River, nine main channel stations were monitored on a weekly basis, while seven stations were monitored in the South River. Vertical profiles were taken weekly for dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity in the Severn River, while pH, and chlorophyll a were added to the above parameters in the South River. The sampling period took place from late May through September (2010–2014) at each of the 16 locations as shown in Fig. 2. YSI (Yellow Springs Instruments Inc. 556 and/or Hydrolab DS5 sondes were used for the monitoring programs. The instruments were calibrated pre and post monitoring events as per manufacturer’s guidelines and the Chesapeake Bay Program monitoring QA/QC protocol document. Station distances were normalized to the station at the mouth at each river. For the Severn River, the station that represents the mouth opening up to the Chesapeake Bay proper is station SRN 0, while station MS 1 represents the mouth of the South River. Average distances from the mouth of the river and depths are listed in Table 2 and Table 3 for the Severn and South Rivers respectively. Station depths were recorded using a Hummingbird Helix 9 DI Sonar GPS unit mounted to the vessel used to collect samples longitudinally throughout each sub-estuary.


Resolving spatiotemporal characteristics of the seasonal hypoxia cycle in shallow estuarine environments of the Severn River and South River, MD, Chesapeake Bay, USA
Sample locations in the Severn and South Rivers, MD.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037264&req=5

fig0010: Sample locations in the Severn and South Rivers, MD.
Mentions: A detailed monitoring program in both the spatial and temporal dimensions was first developed for each estuary. In the Severn River, nine main channel stations were monitored on a weekly basis, while seven stations were monitored in the South River. Vertical profiles were taken weekly for dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity in the Severn River, while pH, and chlorophyll a were added to the above parameters in the South River. The sampling period took place from late May through September (2010–2014) at each of the 16 locations as shown in Fig. 2. YSI (Yellow Springs Instruments Inc. 556 and/or Hydrolab DS5 sondes were used for the monitoring programs. The instruments were calibrated pre and post monitoring events as per manufacturer’s guidelines and the Chesapeake Bay Program monitoring QA/QC protocol document. Station distances were normalized to the station at the mouth at each river. For the Severn River, the station that represents the mouth opening up to the Chesapeake Bay proper is station SRN 0, while station MS 1 represents the mouth of the South River. Average distances from the mouth of the river and depths are listed in Table 2 and Table 3 for the Severn and South Rivers respectively. Station depths were recorded using a Hummingbird Helix 9 DI Sonar GPS unit mounted to the vessel used to collect samples longitudinally throughout each sub-estuary.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The nature of emerging patterns concerning water quality stressors and the evolution of hypoxia within sub-estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay has been an important unresolved question among the Chesapeake Bay community. Elucidation of the nature of hypoxia in the tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay has important ramifications to the successful restoration of the Bay, since much of Bay states population lives within the watersheds of the tributaries. Very little to date, is known about the small sub-estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay due to limited resources and the difficulties in resolving both space and time dimensions on scales that are adequate to resolve this question. We resolve the spatio-temporal domain dilemma by setting up an intense monitoring program of water quality stressors in the Severn and South Rivers, MD. Volume rendered models were constructed to allow for a visual dissection of the water quality times series which illustrates the life cycle of hypoxia and anoxia at the mid to upper portions of the tidal tributaries. The model also shows that unlike their larger Virginian tributary counterparts, there is little to no evidence of severe hypoxic water intrusions from the main-stem of the Chesapeake Bay into these sub-estuaries.

No MeSH data available.