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A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required.

Therefore, this UK student survey assessed both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks, using a within-subject design.

A total of 1873 students completed the survey, including 732 who consumed AMED. It was found that AMED consumers drank significantly less alcohol when they consumed AMED compared to when they drank AO (p < 0.001). In line with reduced alcohol consumption significantly fewer negative alcohol-related consequences were reported on AMED occasions compared to AO occasions (p < 0.001).

These findings suggest that mixing alcohol with energy drinks does not increase total alcohol consumption or alcohol-related negative consequences.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

UK Student Survey: Means (standard deviations) for within-subjects comparisons of AMED group (N = 732) on consumption questions for AO occasions and AMED occasions.Notes: Questions are specifically asked for both conditions (consuming solely alcohol/consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks). All differences are significant at the p < 0.001 level.
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f0005: UK Student Survey: Means (standard deviations) for within-subjects comparisons of AMED group (N = 732) on consumption questions for AO occasions and AMED occasions.Notes: Questions are specifically asked for both conditions (consuming solely alcohol/consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks). All differences are significant at the p < 0.001 level.

Mentions: To establish whether mixing energy drinks with alcohol had an impact on total alcohol consumption, within-subjects comparisons were performed for members of the AMED group (N = 732), comparing occasions on which they consumed AMED with occasions on which they consumed AO. As can be seen in Fig. 1. the analysis revealed statistically significant differences across all consumption questions (p < 0.001) indicating generally lower frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption when combining with energy drinks compared to consuming alcohol alone. For example, compared to consuming AO, when consuming AMED, participants consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks during an average drinking session (6.0 ± 4.9 versus 9.0 ± 6.1, d = 0.54), reported significantly fewer drinking days (2.3 ± 2.8 versus 7.0 ± 5.3, d = 1.11) and days drunk (2.1 ± 2.7 versus 4.0 ± 3.8, d = 0.58) in the past month, and significantly fewer occasions consuming more than four (female)/five (male) alcoholic drinks (2.1 ± 2.9 versus 4.7 ± 4.4, d = 0.70). They also consumed fewer maximum number of alcoholic drinks (7.0 ± 7.9 versus 12.9 ± 8.6, d = 0.72) on a single occasion in the previous month, and the duration of alcohol consumption on this occasion was significantly shorter (4.5 ± 3.2 versus 5.8 ± 2.9 h, d = 0.43) when consuming AMED than when consuming AO. Finally, when consuming AMED they consumed fewer alcoholic drinks on a single occasion in the previous years than when consuming AO (7.0 ± 6.8 versus 17.9 ± 9.4, d = 1.33).


A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences
UK Student Survey: Means (standard deviations) for within-subjects comparisons of AMED group (N = 732) on consumption questions for AO occasions and AMED occasions.Notes: Questions are specifically asked for both conditions (consuming solely alcohol/consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks). All differences are significant at the p < 0.001 level.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037256&req=5

f0005: UK Student Survey: Means (standard deviations) for within-subjects comparisons of AMED group (N = 732) on consumption questions for AO occasions and AMED occasions.Notes: Questions are specifically asked for both conditions (consuming solely alcohol/consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks). All differences are significant at the p < 0.001 level.
Mentions: To establish whether mixing energy drinks with alcohol had an impact on total alcohol consumption, within-subjects comparisons were performed for members of the AMED group (N = 732), comparing occasions on which they consumed AMED with occasions on which they consumed AO. As can be seen in Fig. 1. the analysis revealed statistically significant differences across all consumption questions (p < 0.001) indicating generally lower frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption when combining with energy drinks compared to consuming alcohol alone. For example, compared to consuming AO, when consuming AMED, participants consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks during an average drinking session (6.0 ± 4.9 versus 9.0 ± 6.1, d = 0.54), reported significantly fewer drinking days (2.3 ± 2.8 versus 7.0 ± 5.3, d = 1.11) and days drunk (2.1 ± 2.7 versus 4.0 ± 3.8, d = 0.58) in the past month, and significantly fewer occasions consuming more than four (female)/five (male) alcoholic drinks (2.1 ± 2.9 versus 4.7 ± 4.4, d = 0.70). They also consumed fewer maximum number of alcoholic drinks (7.0 ± 7.9 versus 12.9 ± 8.6, d = 0.72) on a single occasion in the previous month, and the duration of alcohol consumption on this occasion was significantly shorter (4.5 ± 3.2 versus 5.8 ± 2.9 h, d = 0.43) when consuming AMED than when consuming AO. Finally, when consuming AMED they consumed fewer alcoholic drinks on a single occasion in the previous years than when consuming AO (7.0 ± 6.8 versus 17.9 ± 9.4, d = 1.33).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required.

Therefore, this UK student survey assessed both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks, using a within-subject design.

A total of 1873 students completed the survey, including 732 who consumed AMED. It was found that AMED consumers drank significantly less alcohol when they consumed AMED compared to when they drank AO (p&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.001). In line with reduced alcohol consumption significantly fewer negative alcohol-related consequences were reported on AMED occasions compared to AO occasions (p&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.001).

These findings suggest that mixing alcohol with energy drinks does not increase total alcohol consumption or alcohol-related negative consequences.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus