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Association Between Social Participation and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons.

Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%). Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females) without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL) were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs) were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens’ clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used.

Results: After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001). A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens’ clubs among males.

Conclusions: Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males.

No MeSH data available.


Selection of subjects. ADL, activities of daily living; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living.
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fig01: Selection of subjects. ADL, activities of daily living; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living.

Mentions: Data were obtained from the Nara Healthy Life Expectancy Study, a cross-sectional community survey conducted in three urban cities in Nara prefecture, located in the western part of Japan. From March to May 2014, these city offices distributed self-administered postal questionnaires to community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and older. The survey was conducted using a complete census (complete enumeration) of one city and a random sampling method stratified by region, age, and gender in the other two cities. Figure shows the procedure for selecting subjects. Of the 23 710 mailed questionnaires, 17 591 were returned (response rate: 74.2%). Among them, 1867 subjects with missing values for the questions regarding ADL, IADL, social role, and/or SP were excluded. Additionally, 768 individuals with dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL), who were identified by using the Barthel Index17 (a score of <60), were excluded because basic ADL has an influence on higher-level functional capacity and SP.18 In total, 2635 returned questionnaires were excluded, resulting in 14 956 subjects (6935 males and 8021 females) available for the present study.


Association Between Social Participation and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Selection of subjects. ADL, activities of daily living; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037253&req=5

fig01: Selection of subjects. ADL, activities of daily living; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living.
Mentions: Data were obtained from the Nara Healthy Life Expectancy Study, a cross-sectional community survey conducted in three urban cities in Nara prefecture, located in the western part of Japan. From March to May 2014, these city offices distributed self-administered postal questionnaires to community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and older. The survey was conducted using a complete census (complete enumeration) of one city and a random sampling method stratified by region, age, and gender in the other two cities. Figure shows the procedure for selecting subjects. Of the 23 710 mailed questionnaires, 17 591 were returned (response rate: 74.2%). Among them, 1867 subjects with missing values for the questions regarding ADL, IADL, social role, and/or SP were excluded. Additionally, 768 individuals with dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL), who were identified by using the Barthel Index17 (a score of <60), were excluded because basic ADL has an influence on higher-level functional capacity and SP.18 In total, 2635 returned questionnaires were excluded, resulting in 14 956 subjects (6935 males and 8021 females) available for the present study.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons.

Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged &ge;65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%). Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females) without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL) were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs) were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens&rsquo; clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used.

Results: After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend &lt;0.001). A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens&rsquo; clubs among males.

Conclusions: Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males.

No MeSH data available.