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The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Attributable to Major Modifiable Risk Factors in Indonesia

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: In Indonesia, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke are estimated to cause more than 470 000 deaths annually. In order to inform primary prevention policies, we estimated the sex- and age-specific burden of CHD and stroke attributable to five major and modifiable vascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, elevated total cholesterol, and excess body weight.

Methods: Population attributable risks for CHD and stroke attributable to these risk factors individually were calculated using summary statistics obtained for prevalence of each risk factor specific to sex and to two age categories (<55 and ≥55 years) from a national survey in Indonesia. Age- and sex-specific relative risks for CHD and stroke associated with each of the five risk factors were derived from prospective data from the Asia-Pacific region.

Results: Hypertension was the leading vascular risk factor, explaining 20%–25% of all CHD and 36%–42% of all strokes in both sexes and approximately one-third of all CHD and half of all strokes across younger and older age groups alike. Smoking in men explained a substantial proportion of vascular events (25% of CHD and 17% of strokes). However, given that these risk factors are likely to be strongly correlated, these population attributable risk proportions are likely to be overestimates and require verification from future studies that are able to take into account correlation between risk factors.

Conclusions: Implementation of effective population-based prevention strategies aimed at reducing levels of major cardiovascular risk factors, especially blood pressure, total cholesterol, and smoking prevalence among men, could reduce the growing burden of CVD in the Indonesian population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Prevalence (percentages) of selected cardiovascular risk factors in the Indonesian population. Prevalence of hypertension and overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) was measured in individuals ≥18 years of age. Diabetes, smoking, and elevated total cholesterol (total serum cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/L) were estimated for individuals ≥15 years old.
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fig01: Prevalence (percentages) of selected cardiovascular risk factors in the Indonesian population. Prevalence of hypertension and overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) was measured in individuals ≥18 years of age. Diabetes, smoking, and elevated total cholesterol (total serum cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/L) were estimated for individuals ≥15 years old.

Mentions: Of the risk factors included in this analysis, cigarette smoking was the most prevalent risk factor in men (64.9%), followed by elevated total cholesterol, hypertension, excess bodyweight, and diabetes (Figure 1). In women, the prevalence of smoking was low (2.1%), and elevated total cholesterol was the most prevalent risk factor (39.6%), followed by excess body weight, hypertension, and diabetes. The frequencies of all five risk factors differed significantly between men and women (all P < 0.001). Smoking and overweight were more common in younger (<55 years) than older (≥55 years) individuals (eFigure 2). By comparison, hypertension, diabetes, and high total cholesterol were more prevalent in older than younger individuals.


The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Attributable to Major Modifiable Risk Factors in Indonesia
Prevalence (percentages) of selected cardiovascular risk factors in the Indonesian population. Prevalence of hypertension and overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) was measured in individuals ≥18 years of age. Diabetes, smoking, and elevated total cholesterol (total serum cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/L) were estimated for individuals ≥15 years old.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037248&req=5

fig01: Prevalence (percentages) of selected cardiovascular risk factors in the Indonesian population. Prevalence of hypertension and overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) was measured in individuals ≥18 years of age. Diabetes, smoking, and elevated total cholesterol (total serum cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/L) were estimated for individuals ≥15 years old.
Mentions: Of the risk factors included in this analysis, cigarette smoking was the most prevalent risk factor in men (64.9%), followed by elevated total cholesterol, hypertension, excess bodyweight, and diabetes (Figure 1). In women, the prevalence of smoking was low (2.1%), and elevated total cholesterol was the most prevalent risk factor (39.6%), followed by excess body weight, hypertension, and diabetes. The frequencies of all five risk factors differed significantly between men and women (all P < 0.001). Smoking and overweight were more common in younger (<55 years) than older (≥55 years) individuals (eFigure 2). By comparison, hypertension, diabetes, and high total cholesterol were more prevalent in older than younger individuals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: In Indonesia, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke are estimated to cause more than 470 000 deaths annually. In order to inform primary prevention policies, we estimated the sex- and age-specific burden of CHD and stroke attributable to five major and modifiable vascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, elevated total cholesterol, and excess body weight.

Methods: Population attributable risks for CHD and stroke attributable to these risk factors individually were calculated using summary statistics obtained for prevalence of each risk factor specific to sex and to two age categories (&lt;55 and &ge;55 years) from a national survey in Indonesia. Age- and sex-specific relative risks for CHD and stroke associated with each of the five risk factors were derived from prospective data from the Asia-Pacific region.

Results: Hypertension was the leading vascular risk factor, explaining 20%&ndash;25% of all CHD and 36%&ndash;42% of all strokes in both sexes and approximately one-third of all CHD and half of all strokes across younger and older age groups alike. Smoking in men explained a substantial proportion of vascular events (25% of CHD and 17% of strokes). However, given that these risk factors are likely to be strongly correlated, these population attributable risk proportions are likely to be overestimates and require verification from future studies that are able to take into account correlation between risk factors.

Conclusions: Implementation of effective population-based prevention strategies aimed at reducing levels of major cardiovascular risk factors, especially blood pressure, total cholesterol, and smoking prevalence among men, could reduce the growing burden of CVD in the Indonesian population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus